The direct synthetic method of polyglycerine (PG) by means of hydrolysis of epichlorohydrin (ECH) with caustic soda solution was investigated. The concentration of caustic soda solution considerably affected the yield and the molecular weight of PG. It was observed that the higher the concentration, the lower the yield and the higher the molecular weight. The glycerine content of PG was also affected by the concentration of the caustic soda solution, and the glycerine content increased with the decrease in the concentration. It was found, moreover, that water-soluble solid PG or insoluble and infusible PG, which was suggested to be cross-linked PG, was obtained when the hydrolysis of ECH was carried out with 30% caustic soda solution. When ECH and caustic soda solution were mixed in an autoclave and the hydrolysis was carried out under pressure, the reaction took place violently and no solid polymer was obtained. The product obtained was dark brown and unsaturated polymer, which was probably caused by the decomposition of some intermediates. Then, the method of desalting from PG was investigated. The electrodialysis was found the most effective method of desalting from PG. PG containing only about 1% salt was obtained from the PG solution containing about 15% salt. The loss of the organic substances, such as PG and glycerine, was only 7% in the process of the electrodialysis.
Authors examined the product obtained by liquid phase oxidation of methacrolein, which was performed in benzene solution with copper naphthenate as catalyst at the reaction temperature of 3550°C. Among the compounds found by gas-chromatographic analysis (column temperature : 135°C), O2, CO2, HCHO, CH3CHO, HCOOH and a few unknown compounds are considered to be formed by thermal decomposition of certain substance (perhaps peroxide formed in liquid phase) in the analytical apparatus. Considerable amount of methacrolein, methacrylic acid and acetic acid determined by gaschromatographic method, exist in a free state in reaction medium. Simultaneously with the start of reaction (stirring) oxygen absorption and methacrolein consumption are observed, and the formation of methacrylic acid begins after short time. In the absence of catalyst, no oxidation reaction occurs.
Among the surface-active compounds containing silicon atoms in the hydrophobic group being widely studied recently, methylsiloxane-oxyalkylene copolymers are reported to have very exellent surface activity. But study on surfactants containing polysilmethylene group has never been reported yet. The authors synthesized such compounds and investigated their physical properties to examine the difference of property between silicon-oxgen bond and silicon-carbon bond and the effect of substitution of carbons in the alkyl chain by silicons. Syntheses were carried out as follow; 4, 4, 6, 6-Tetramethyl-4, 6-disilheptanol was prepeard by the reaction of ethylene oxide with the Grignard reagent of 4, 4, 6, 6-tetramethyl-4, 6-disilpentyl chloride obtained by the reaction of trimethylsilylmethyl lithium with chloromethyl-dimethylchlorosilane. Ethyleneoxide-adducts of this disilheptanol were obtained by the usual addition reaction with potassium hydroxide catalyst. Surface tension, wetting power, dispersing power on carbon black in benzene and foaming power of the aqueous solution of the adducts were determined, and it was found that some gave low surface tention at 0.1% and 1.0% solution and good foaming power. But dispersing power on carbon black in benzene and wetting ability to polyvinyl chloride were less. These silmethylene-type compounds were inferior to siloxane-type compound in lowering surface tension and wetting power. In conclusion, siloxane bond is more efficient in lowering surface energy than silmethylene bond, and the effect of substitution of only two carbons in the alkyl chain by silicons is not evident.
The antistatic treatment of printing inks for polyethylene with surface active agents as antistatic agents was studied. Surface resistivity and charge generation of printed inks incorporated with surface active agents on polyethylene filmes were measured. Some cationic and amphoteric surface active agents exhibited the good antistatic property. Furthermore, it was found that the printability (adhesion strength) of inks incorporated with some cationic surface active agents to polyethylene film was improved, and polyethylene film incorporated with internal antistatic agents showed the better printability than blank film. Authors believe that the orientation of the cloes packed molecular layer of surface active agents on polyethylene film, its surface polarity and wettability of both polyethylene film and printed ink surfaces are essential for exhibiting the excellent antistatic property and printability between polyethylene and inks.
The objects of this study was to investigate and to discuss on the fundamental factors for pan-frying from the viewpoint of cooking. Several foods such as cabbage, bean sprout, egg, rice, meat and fish were pan-fried with different amounts of vegetable oil, lard, butter and margaline. The result showed that the proper amount of oil to cook the foods was 5-10% of the foods and that was same with any kind of oil (Table-2). Temperatures during cooking were measured from 3 points, namely the bottom of frying-pan, the surface of food and the center of foods for each food (Fig. -1, 2). The weight loss of foods during pan-frying was about 10% in general, but about 20% for watery ones such as cabbage and bean-sprout, The weight loss was also affected by heating power and by the amount of contents (Table-3, 4). The amount of oil and water left in the bottom of pan was also affected by heating power, when watery foods were pan-fried. It seemed desirable for watery foods to cook with strong heat and for a short time. When oils are used for pan-frying, the oils are heated in a form of very thin film though for a short time. In order to determine the extent of deterioration of oils during pan-frying, acid values, iodine values and TBA values of soybean oils heated in thin film at 100°C and 180°C, and of oils used for pan-frying of rice and bean-sprout were measured. The fatty acid contents of these oils were also determined by gas chromatography. It was found that oils used for pan-frying deteriorated considerably, though in a short time (Table-5, 6).
Effect of γ-ray (60Co) irradiation on the properties of soaps was studied by means of X-ray diffraction method especially with regard to crystal form and crystalinity. And, from the point of view of practial use, the solubility by abrasion of the soaps were also measured. On the irradiation of up to 2×107 r. of total dose, all soaps, regardless of commercial soaps or single fatty acid soaps, were very resistible in relation to crystal form and only slight increase in crystalinity was observed for commercial soaps.