Poly (sodium acrylate) s with molecular weight 56041100 and poly (sodium 2-hydroxyacrylate) s with molecular weight 11007800 were prepared, and their building performances, Ca2+ sequestering capacity, surface tension, emulsifying power, cmc, buffering capacity, dispersing power for carbon black and MnO2, and the detergency on soiled cotton fabrics were also determined for the builders (with/without sodium dodecylbenzenesulf ovate) and compared with the corresponding properties for sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) and disodium 3-oxapentanedioate (ODA). It was evident that the washing efficiencies of detergents containing each of the builders correlated with Ca2+ sequestering capacities and dispersing power for MnO2. Other physicochemical properties of the builders correlated poorly with their washing efficiencies. The most effective molecular weight for these poly electrolytes were about 8000. Poly (sodium acrylate) s with molecular weight 300010000 had better building performances than STPP. And also the polyacrylates had better building performances than the poly (2-hydroxyacrylate) s.
A mixture of 2-alkyl-2-cyclopentenone (2) and 2-alkylidenecyclopentanone (3) was obtained in good yield by the treatment of 1-alkyl-cis-2, 3-epoxycyclopentanols (1) in an aqueous mineral acid. In case of the use of aqueous 10% hydrochloric acid, 1-alkyl-3-chloro-1, 2-cyclopentanediols (4) were produced remarkably. It was presumed that (2) and (3) were produced via the enol forms by intramolecular dehydrochlorination of (4). cis-1, 2-Diols (5) were produced nearly quantitatively by the reduction of (1) with LiAlH4 in dried tetrahydrofuran. When (5) were reacted in an aqueous mineral acid, 2-alkylcyclopentanones (6) were obtained in 8895% yield. It was suggested that (6) were produced via the enol form by dehydration of (5).
Factors affecting synergism between γ-tocopherol (γ-Toc) and amino compounds in the inhibition of the autoxidation of methyl esters of fatty acids, mainly linoleate, were investigated in order to clarify the conditions exhibiting their synergism. Tri-n-octylamine (TOA) and trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) themselves used as synergists were pro-oxidative, but they, especially TOA, remarkably synernized with γ-Toc when higher concentration of γ-Toc was present. Lecithin and cephalin showed no pro-oxidative activity under these conditions. Out of the reducing dimers of γ-Toc, γ-Toc ether dimer showed synergism with TOA and TMAO, but γ-Toc biphenyl dimer didn't. It was found, therefore, that the synergistic effects required limited factors such as temperature, concentration, the composition of fatty acids, etc. when purified methyl linoleate was used as a substrate. As TMAO served as a potent synergist for a small amount of Toc in inhibiting the autoxidation of lard, however, remarkable synergism could be expected by a combination of Toc and more than two kinds of amino compounds containing at least a substance which compensates pro-oxidative actions of synergists such as TMAO and strongly draws forth their synergistic abilities.
The esterification of n-fatty acids with 1- and 2-butanols catalyzed by macroreticular sulfonated ion exchange resin has been studied in a batch reactor. The reaction was first-order in concentration of fatty acid over the range of experimental conditions. From the results summarized in Figs.-2 and 3, it was determined that neither bulk diffusion nor pore diffusion is a limiting step in the reaction. The results of Fig.-4 show that in the esterification with 1-butanol catalyzed by the ion exchange resin the carbon number of fatty acid influences significantly the reaction rate, in other words the ion exchange resin as catalyst has selectivity. However, as may be seen in Fig.-5, in the esterification with 2-butanol the selectivity of the catalyst was not recognized. The above results are explained by introducing the assumption that the reaction with 1-butanol is catalyzed by the hydrophobic proton and the matrix-bound -SO3H groups, the reaction with 2-butanol is catalyzed by the hydrophobic proton and hydrated proton in the resin matrix.
N-n-Alkyl-N, N, N', N', N'-pentamethylethylenediammonium dichlorides were prepared according to two different methods. Antibacterial properties of the diammonium salts and N-n-alkyl (2-hydroxyethyl) dimethylammonium chlorides, obtained as intermediates, against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli have been investigated. Activities of the diammonium salts were superior to those of the monoammonium salts and increased with increasing alkyl-chain length.