The authors have been engaged in a study on the antioxidative and antimicrobial activity of compounds having sesamol-like structures. In this report, four different 1, 3-dioxaindan derivatives were synthesized and their antioxidative activity foward the autoxidation of lard was determined. 2-Methyl-1, 3-dioxaindan (BHM) was prepared by a reaction of catechol with 1, 1-dichloroethane. It showed no antioxidative activity. 2, 2-Dimethy1-1, 3-dioxaindan (CDM), 2, 2-diethyl-1, 3-dioxaindan (EDE), and 2, 2-dipropy1-1, 3-dioxaindan (GDP) were prepared by the reaction of catechol with acetone, 3-pentanone, and 4-heptanone, respectively. CDM, EDE, and GDP were found to have slight antioxidative activity even though they possessed no phenolic hydroxyl groups.
The oxidation of 4 R- (+) -1, 8-ρ-menthadiene (1), 1, 3-p-menthadiene (2) and 1, 4-p-menthadiene (3) under oxygen plasma discharge was investigated. The following results were obtained : (-) -Menthone (5) was the major product from (1). Carvomenthone (12) was the major product from (2). Trans-4-p-menthen-2-ol (14) was obtained from (3) as the main product, amounting to 94% of the oxidation products under the best conditions. These results differed from those by the conventional oxidation process.
A fuel of coal-water slurry (hereinafter simply called CWS) must be combustible in an as-prepared condition without previous dyhydration. For this purpose, it was necessary to increase the concentration of coal in CWS. Thus, alcohol based multi-branched high molecular nonionic surface active agents were synthesized to evaluate their effects on the fluidity of CWS while measuring their physicochemical properties. The results indicated the following. 1) For CWS of Tatung coal, the coal concentration could not be increased beyond 59% in the absence of a surface active agent. 2) Copolymers prepared by adding propylene oxide and ethylene oxide to glycerol, diglycerol or sorbitol showed excellent fluidity. That is, by these agents, Tatung coal CWS was made having a viscosity of 1, 300 cP at a coal concentration of 71%. 3) Among the above copolymers, a multi-branched high molecular nonionic surface active agent, whose side chain had a molecular weight of 10, 000 or more and an ethylene oxide content between 85 and 95%, improved the fluidity of CWS most effectively.
A novel sodium polycarboxylate of low molecular weight was obtained from the reaction of cyclohexanone with dimethyl maleate, followed by saponification with sodium hydroxide. The builder effects of the polycarboxylate were studied. The polycarboxylate showed a large buffer index slightly lower than that of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP). The calcium sequestering capacity of the polycarboxylate was nearly equal to that of STPP, and much larger than that of gluconate, glucoheptonate or saccharate. Plural carboxylate ions without hydroxyl or ether groups at the α position may play an important role in the sequestering of calcium ions. The dispersing ability of manganese dioxide of the polycarboxylate was superior to that of STPP. In the detergency test, the polycarboxylate was found to be excellent, being comparable to zeolite and superior to gluconate, glucoheptonate and saccharate, though somewhat less than STPP.
Correlation between hydrophile-lipophile-balance temperature, TcomHLB, and the HLB number of commercial nonionic surfactants (C12C18) was investigated. The empirical formula, Row (1/x-1) = A (T-TcomHLB) is valid for these surfactants. (Row is the weight fraction of oil in water+oil, x, the weight fraction of surfactant in a system, T, the temperature, and A, a constant.) TcomHLB (HLB temperature=Phase Inversion Temperature) is a characteristic temperature related to the NcomHLB (HLB number), i.e., TcomHLB=koil (NcomHLB-Noil), provided the HLB temperature is 1080°C or more. (koil, Noil are constants for a given oil.) Through the application of these equations, an HLB number of a surfactant may be evaluated from the HLB temperature and phase behavior or vice versa.
For standardization of a quantitative analysis method of IPA (Icosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid) in fish oil containing concentrated polyunsaturated fatty acid, the methyl esters of IPA at a content of about 25% and 18% were analyzed by the gaschromatography method of DEGS (Diethylene Glycol Succinate) packed column. The experimental data were treated statistically to examine inter-and intraloboratory scattering. The inter-and intralaboratory CV (Coefficirnt of Variation) of DHA mean values appreciably increased more than those of the IPA mean values obtained at each laboratory. The CV of IPA mean values at 10% DEGS were less than 2.0% in either sample.
Antitumor effect of tocotrienol was tested on murine tumor. IMC carcinoma cells were inoculated intraperitoneally (ip) into CDF1 mouse (6 week old, female), and mice were given ip injections of tocotrienol. Ten successive injections of α-tocotrienol (> 90%) gave a increase in life span of 248% at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day, and number of 60-day survivors was 4 out of 5 mice.