Eight kinds of condensation products were prepared by the reaction of perfluorooctanoic acid with monoethanolamine and diethanolamine in a molar ratio of 1 : 1 or 1 : 2 at room temperature or 150°C, and investigated for surface activity with respect to surface tension, wettability, oil-repellency, and emulsifying power. In general, the condensation product (1 : 1) of diethanolamine prepared at 150°C showed superior properties to those of other products. Among the three kinds of materials (benzene, kerosene, and soybean oil), kerosene was found to form generally the most stable emulsions, but soybean oil was scarcely emulsified except by the condensation product (1 : 2) of monoethanolamine.
2-Ethylhexyl 2, 3-dihyroxypropyl phthalate [GOP (o) ] and its isomers [isophthalate (GOP (iso) ) and terephthalate (GOP (tere) )] were prepared to examine the synergetic effects on the thermal stabilization of poly (vinylchloride) with unpoisonous synergetic metal soaps (Zn stearate/Ca stearate). 1) These phthalates slowed down the abrupt discoloration (zinc burning) of poly (vinyl chloride) films and showed marked synergetic effects. The order of masking ability was as follows : GOP (o) >GOP (iso) ≈GOP (tere) 2) The best synergetic effect of GOP (o) in the three isomers shoud be due to the masking effect of their vicinal hydroxyl groups and -COO- segments near the hydroxyl groups.
The desorption of surfactant from carbon black suspension was studied as a function of time by using the stopped flow method. The surfactants used were sodium decyl sulfate (SDeS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS). Carbon black suspensions containing various concentrations of surfactants were rapidly diluted with distilled water by using a mixing cell with two syringes. The electric conductivity of suspension increased with time due to the liberation of surfactant from carbon black. The changes in conductance with time were monitored by a conductmeter and an oscilloscope connected with it. The rate constants of desorption were estimated from results by applying the first-order reaction scheme. The rate constants in early stage of desorption process thus obtained were 1.8, 0.8, and 0.6s-1. for SDeS, SDS, and STS, respectively. Their half life periods were estimated to be 0.41.2s from the rate constants.
The fatty acids of the seed and mesocarp oils of A. lancifolia (Sieb. et Zucc.) Meisn (I), P. trilobum (Sieb. et Zucc.) Nakai (II), L. umbellata Thunb (III), L. obtusiloba Blume (IV), L. glauca (Sieb. et Zucc.) Blume (V), and M. thunbergii (Sieb. et Zucc) (VI) were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The major components of the mesocarp oils were oleic, palmitic, and linoleic acids, similar to each other. The major components fatty acids of the seed oils were as follows : (I), (II), and (III) -lauric, decanoic, and oleic acids. (IV) -decanoic, lauric, and cis-4-dodecenoic acids. (V) -cis-4-dodecenoic, lauric, and oleic acids. The mesocarps of (II) and the seeds of (VI) contained traces of oils.