To improve the reproducibility of data for the moisture content determination of repeseed, the effects of drying temperature and drying time on moisture content, and those of sample grinding conditions on oil content were examined. The same was also done for rapeseed meal and soybean meal. The moisture content of 10g of whole rapeseed after 3h at 130°C in a forced draft oven was higher and showed less deviation than that of rapeseed processed by the present standard method, i.e., 5g of ground rapeseed after 3h 105°C in the forced draft oven. The oil content of rapeseed was affected by the amount of sample grinding. The oil content of a sample ground by a mechanical device, such as a coffee mill, was higher than that ground by a mortar and pestle. Mechanical grinding probably produced more uniformly five particles. The moisture content of rapeseed meal and soybean meal after 3h at 130°C was higher than that of the present standard method, i.e., after 3h at 105°C and after 2h at 130°C respectively. The moisture content of rapeseed meal after 3h at 130°C showed less significant deviation than that of the present standard method, after 3h at 105°C.
The influence of growth temperature, C/N ratio of the medium and nitrogen source on the amounts of lipids formed from alkane or glucose in the mycelium of Fusarium moniliforme S-13 strain was invesigtated. Lipid content in the mycelium of the strain increased with increasing C/N ratio, particularly when using glucose as the carbon source. The greatest amount of lipids (53.4%) was obtained at a C/N ratio of 343 with ammonium nitrate and glucose as the nitrogen and carbon source at 30°C. The maximum accumulation of lipids using decane and glucose occurred at a C/N ratio of 24.1 at 20°C with ammonium sulfate (0.43g/400ml of meidum) and at a C/N ratio of 114 at 30°C with ammonium nitrate (0.96g/400ml of medium) respectively. The fatty acid composition of neutral and polar lipid fractions fractionated from the lipid extracts by silicic acid column chromatography and the lipid composition of both lipid fractions were determined. Changes in composition by variation in culture conditions, such as the use of different carbon sources, were also investigated.
Isotactic poly (sodium acrylate) (It-PA) with a molecular weight (Mn) of 1, 55015, 700, poly [(sodim 2-hydroxyacrylate) -co- (sodium acrylate)] [P (HA-A)] with a Mn of 4, 33013, 400, poly [(sodim 2-hydroxyacylate) -co- (sodium methacrylate)] [P (HA-MA)] with a Mn of 3, 62013, 100, poly [(sodium 2-hydroxyacrylate) -co- (disodium fumarate)] [P (HA-F)] with a Mn of 2, 1303, 410, poly [(methyl vinyl sulfide) -co- (sodium acrylate)] [P (MVS-A)] with a Mn of 2, 76085, 700, poly [(methyl vinyl ether) -co- (sodium acrylate)] [P (MVE-A)] with a Mn of 2, 04020, 600, poly [(disodium fumarate) -co- (sodium acrylate)] [P (F-A)] with a Mn of 2, 2703, 080, poly [(vinyl alcohol) -co- (sodium acrylate)] [P (VA-A)] with a Mn of 2, 81011, 500, poly (acrylamide) (PAAm) with a Mn of 10, 20062, 000, and poly [(acrylamide) -co- (sodium acrylate)] [P (AAm-A)] with a Mn of 5, 9108, 980 were prepared. The influence of substituted groups, molecular weight and tacticity of the oligomers on building performance in detergents was examined. As standards, sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) and sodium 3-oxapentanedioate (ODA) were used.
Several acrylate and methacrylate telomers and acrylate-vinyl alcohol cotelomers containing sulfide and hydroxyl groups were prepared, and their detergency building powers were examined. Their Ca sequestering capacity and dispersing power for MnO2 were also determined. The corresponding properties of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) and disodium 3-oxapentanedioate (ODA) were determind as the standards. The telomer type oligomers showed better building performances in detergents, and these performances depended on the molecular weight, tacticity and chemical structure of the telomers. The building performances of acrylate telomers were better than those of the corresponding methacrylate telomers. The building performances of telomers which contained chelating groups as telogens were much better than those of the corresponding telomers which had no chelating groups. The building performances of syndiotactic methacrylate oligomers were inferior to the corresponding isotactic oligomers.
The biodegradability of several oligomers from acrylic, methacrylic, 2-hydroxyacrylic, fumaric acids, acrylamide, and their oligomeric copolymers with methyl vinyl sulfide, methyl vinyl ether, and vinyl acetate were studied under aerobic conditions. Certein telomers and cotelomers containing acrylic or methacrylic acids were also studied for their Biodegradabilities. The influence of substituted groups, molecular weight, molecular weight distribution and tacticity on biodegradability was examined. Biodegradation was determined by the oxygen consumption method (JIS K0102). The biodegradabilities were found to depend on the molecular weight, tacticity and chemical structure of the oligomers. The oligomers from 2000 to 8000 in molecular weight generally had better biodegradability. Syndiotactic poly (sodium methacrylate) was much biodegradable than the corresponding isotactic oligomers. Poly (sodium 2-hydroxyacrylate) with a Mn of 7300 and poly [(sodium 2-hydroxyacrylate) -co- (sodium acrylate)] with a Mn of 4570 showed BOD/ThOD values of more than 40% after 5d and were considered to be readily biodegradable. Copolymers of sodium 2-hydroxyacrylate and sodium acrylate, vinyl acetate, and methyl vinyl ether and sodium acrylate were moderately biodegradable. Acrylate telomers with hydroxyl groups and cotelomers of sodium acrylate and vinyl acetate were also moderately biodegradable. From these results, the introduction of hydroxyl groups to the oligomers appears to promote their biodegradability.
This paper describes the synthesis of dihydrotagetone (3), 4-methyl-6- (2-methylpropyl) -3, 4-dihydro-2 H-pyran (4), dihydrorose oxide (5), menthone (8), and isomenthone (9) from readily available 3-methyl-3-butenyl acetate (1). The synthetic route is shown in Scheme-1. The pyrolysis reaction of 3, 7-dimethyl-5-oxooctyl acetate (2), obtained by a radical addition of 3-methylbutanal with (1), gave (3) in a 52% yield. This reaction was carried out by passing compound (2) through an electrically heated Pyrex tube packed with ceramic beads at 400420°C. On using a silica-calcia or silica-alumina cat., (4) was obtained from (2) in a 4962% yield. Compounds (8) and (9) were prepared from 8-bromo-2, 6-dimethyl-4-octanone (7) by an intramolecular alkylation reaction, in resulting a 60% yield. The alkylation reaction was carried out with powdered potassium hydroxide in the presence of a crown ether as a catalyst in benzene.
To obtain fundamental data for the filtration of sludge from frying oils, the particle size of sludge from frying oil used in preparing karinto (fried dough cake), tempura, arare (fried rice cake cubes), satsumaage (fried fish balls) and aburaage (fried bean curd) was measured with an HIAC auto-particle counter and particle shape was also observed by microscope. The carbon and nitrogen content in these samples was measured with a CN Corder. The physical characteristics of these sludges were found to vary according to frying conditions and the substances in them were similar to those comprising the food fried in the oils.
Antioxidant effects of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherels (Tocs) investigated using lard, palm or corn oil as a substrate. Conformation of effects was made by determination of the peroxide (POV) and carbonyl values (COV) of the substrate, and the amount of each Toc decomposition by the AOM test. 1) With the addition of each Toc into the oils, changes in a POV and COV values were larger the lard than in the palm or corn oil. Thus, α-Toc led to a high POV of the substrate at the stage of oxidation, but showed an apparent induction period. γ- and δ-Tocs depressed an increase in POV, but did not show a clear induction period. 2) Each Toc was rapidly consumed in the order of α, γ and δ in all substrates. When the POVs reached 100, the residual Tocs remained high in the corn oil, followed by lard and then palm oil. 3) The antioxidant effects of each Toc was found to depend on the substrate. In the lard, each Toc showed remarkable antioxidant effects in the order of δ, γ and α, α-Toc functioned as a pro-oxidant in the palm oil, but γ- and δ-Tocs as antioxidants. However, none of the Tocs showed antioxidant effects in the corn oil.