A minor component “C” (ECL value, 14.35) in the multibranched-chain fatty acids, separated' earlier from whale oil, was identified by gas-liquid chromatography as 4, 8, 12-trimethyltridecanoic-acid, which was synthesized for comparison from both farnesol and phytol and confirmed by means of infrared absorption, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry. The content of this acid in the fin whale blubber oil investigated was approximately 0.005% of the total weight of the acids. The acid was also present as a constituent of the oils from sperm whale blubber as well as blue whale bone and sei whale blubber, as previously reported.
Ten samples of domestic lards, obtained from abdomen and back, were prepared and their Bömer number was measured. At the same time, fatty acid composition of the crystallized glyceride was measured by gas chromatography to examine the correlation, if any, between that and Bömer number. 1) Fatty acid composition of the crystallized glyceride from abdominal fat gave a mean value of 41.2% of C16 and 56.1% of C18 acids, while that of the back was 40.5% and 56.8%, respectively. Calculated from the C16 acid, amount of stearo-dipalmitin was 23.6% from the abdomen and 21.5% from the back, on an average. Amount larger than 30% was found in four samples. 2) Oleic acid content was 2.3% on the average and assuming from the oleic acid content, amount of mono-unsaturated glyceride was 7.5%. There were three samples with more than 10% of its content. 3) When the crystallized glyceride contains a large amount of stearo-dipalmitine and mono-unsaturated glycerides, Sg-Sf values become higher and causes high value Bomer number.
A rapid method of composition analysis for microcrystalline (M.C.) wax using liquid adsorption. chromatography and the urea adduction method was established. Physico-chemical properties, infrared absorption spectrum, differential thermal analysis of each component in M.C. waxes were measured. The following conclusions were obtained from the experimental results. (1) n-Paraffins, iso-paraffins, aromatics and resins in M.C. waxes were separated and then determined quantitatively by the combined analysis using liquid adsorption chromatography and urea adduction. The repeatability of this analytical method was quite good. (2) Distribution of n-paraffins, iso-paraffins, aromatics and resins during the production of M.C. wax could make clear by analyzing the composition of crude wax, M.C. wax products and wax by-products. It was suggested that this analytical method is very useful in the production research of commercial M.C. wax. (3) Infrared absorption spectrum of each component in M.C. waxes showed that n-paraffins had an intense methylene absorption band, while iso-paraffins had an intense methyl absorption band and aromatics showed a substituted benzene absorption band. The change in methylene rocking absorption spectrum of M.C. waxes at various temperaturs was investigated and correlated to the melting point of M.C. waxes. (4) Differential thermal analysis curves of each component in M.C. waxes showed special characteristics. The melting point of M.C. waxes could be inferred from the transition point of these curves.
1) Higher fatty alcohol showed a property to peptize the gel of metal soap and mineral oil, such as lubricating grease, especially those of calcium, barium or magnesium soap. 2) The method of quantitative estimation of the minimum (on necessary) dosage to give a stable gel has been studied on the calcium-stearate-mineral oil system as an example. 3) The minimum dosage of the higher alcohol with various numbers of carbon atom necessary for stable gel formation was measured and the result obtained showed that the minimum dosage in weight percent is proportional to the mean molecular weight of alcohol and is almost constant in reduced mole concentration. The variation in metal soap concentration in the gel had only a small effect on the minimum dosage, but slight tended to decrease as the soap content increased. 4) A comparison of the soap-gel phase diagrams of the colcium-stearate-mineral oil system containing higher alcohol with that containing water, proved an evident difference in function between the alcohol and water. 5) From the experiment, carried out as an example of application to lubricating greare, it was verified that higher alcohol can be used as a peptizer or stabilizing agent of lubricating grease.
Surfactants (RiOC3H6SO3Na, RiCOOC3H6SO3Na) having propane sulfonate group were prepared from fatty alcohols (C10C18) and fatty acids (C10C18). Surface active properties of their aqueous solutions were examined on surface tension, foaming power, foam stability and CMC at 50°C. In comparison with sodium alkylsulfates (RiOSO3Na), the propane sultone derivatives exhibited lower Krafft point and cloud point, excellent surface tension and foaming power even at lower concentrations. The foam stability of these derivatives was similar to each other, but that of fatty acid derivatives was slightly inferior to the others. The CMC values of the propane sultone derivatives were lower than those of sodium alkylsulfates, and relationship between the CMC and the number (N) of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain (Ri) was expressed as follows. RiOC3H6SO3Na ; log CMC =1.15 - 0.292 N RiCOOC3H6SO3Na ; log CMC = 0.99 - 0.296 N RiOSO3Na ; log CMC =1.39 - 0.292 N Furthermore, the relationship between the log CMC and the length of surface active ion (L, Å) could be represented as the following equations. RiOC3H6SO3- ; log CMC = 3.09 - 0.233 L RiCOOC3H6SO3- ; log CMC = 3.17 - 0.233 L RiOSO3-; log CMC = 2.37 = 0.231 L From these equations it is suggested that the hydrophilic groups of -O- and -COO- decrease the lipophilic property of the hydrocarbon chain by 1.4 and 0.7 units of -CH2- respectively in regard to the CMC value.