A simple method for extracting lipids from yeast cells was developed. The cellular lipids were completely extracted with a neutral solvent mixture from wet cells which were disrupted by a cell homogenizer in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The total amount and the composition of lipids in seven strains of yeast (Sacch. cerevisiae, Schw. occidentalis, Schizosacch. pombe, L. starkeyi, Cr. neoformans, C. utilis and Kl. apiculata) were determined.
Disproportionation of tall oil with several catalysts was studied. Iodine and hydrogen iodide were excellent catalysts, and the optimum result was obtained when tall oil was heated with 0.5% iodine for 4 hours at 220240°C. In this reaction, the transfer of hydrogen from abietic acid to linolic acid was observed, and the product mainly contained dehydroabietic acid and octadecenoic acid. It was suggested that the octadecenoic acid formed from linolic acid through the conjugated linolic acid, because the conjugated linolic acid was observed in early stage, and the double bond in the octadecenoic acid distributed widely from C-5 to C-14.
Saturated aliphatic oxo-compounds (carbon number 513) were derived from saturated aliphatic alcohols (carbon number 513) when saturated aliphatic alcohols were thermally dehydrogenated with catalyst systems composed of copper and zinc, at 257°294°C under a reduced pressure. 1) Dehydrogenation of saturated aliphatic alcohols gave saturated aliphatic oxo-compound products in almost quantitative yield excluding the case of 2-ethyl-hexanol. 2) Catalyst systems composed of copper and zinc were found possible for repeated use, and these are effective for dehydrogenation of saturated aliphatic alcohols.
The rate of the hydrolysis of sodium sulfoalkyl alkanoate homologues CnH2n+1COO (CH2) m SO3Na (n=9 and 11 : m=2, 3 and 4) in an alkaline aqueous solution was measured at various temperatures, and the influence of molecular structure of the surfactants on the hydrolysis was investigated. A summary of the results is as follows : 1) The reaction of the hydrolysis of these surfactants at various temperatures was found as second order with respect to the surfactant concentration. 2) With the given initial concentration of the surfactant solutions, the rate constant of hydrolysis decreased with the critical micelle concentration (cmc) values of the surfactants. 3) The effect of the initial concentration on the hydrolysis of the surfactant was found like that the rate of hydrolysis for the concentration below the cmc was higher than that above the cmc. 4) The apparent energy of activation was calculated from the rate constants of hydrolysis at various temperatures. On comparison of two solutions of the same surfactant, the energy of activation for the concentration above the cmc was higher than that for the concentration below the cmc.
Effect of the hydrophobic chain length on the surface activity was investigated for the following two types of oil-soluble organo boron surfactant. (I) (II) It was observed for both types that the shorter the hydrophobic chain lengths of surfactants was, the better the interfacial tension lowering ability became in the alkyl range of C11C21. Monoester type (I) had better interfacial tension lowering ability than diester type (II) in lower concentration region, but no difference in the surface activity was observed between (I) and (II) in the higher concentration region. The result was discussed on the basis of Π-A curves of type (I) and type (II).
5-Cyclohexadecenone, having musk-like odor, is prepared from cyclododecanone via four new steps; chlorination, Grignard reaction with vinylmagnesium chloride and rearrangement with aluminium isopropoxide, revinylation with vinylmagnesium chloride and oxy-Cope rearrangement. 5-Cyclohexadecenone is also prepared from cyclododecane epoxide by the combination of vinylation and chromic oxidation.
When fresh soybean oil (FO) is heated in the presence of air, tocopherol (Toc) in the oil is decreasing. In the previous papers, the authors reported that the effect of Toc on the prevention of toxicity induced by thermally oxidized oil (TO). The present paper deals the effect of Toc on phospholipids and stabillity of erythrocytes of rats fed with TO. The results indicated that phosphatidyl choline (PC) in liver, kidney and testicle of rats fed with TO decreased and phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidyl serine (PS) increased slightly. The amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids or each phospholipid such as PE, PC, PS and PI* in rat tissues fed with TO decreased less than those fed with FO or TO and Toc. Percentage of erythrocyte hemolysis of rats fed with TO was higher than those of FO or TO with Toc. From these data, it was clearly found that component or fatty acid composition of phospholipids and stability of erythrocytes in rats fed with TO were characteristially improved by the addition of Toc. * Phosphatidyl inositol