A rapid and efficient method for the separation of polar lipids in microorganisms by high-performance liquid chromatography was developed. The chromatography of polar lipids was perfomed on a system combined with two columns (Zorbax CN and ODS) using acetonitrile-water-phosphoric acid (100 : 2 : 0.1, by vol.) as a moving solvent and an UV detector (absorbance at 203nm). A complete sepaLration and quantitation of polar lipids, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, glycolipid containing phosphorus and glycolipid were achieved by this method using ergosterol as an internal standard. These lipids were main components of polar lipids in the microorganisms such as Mortierella isabellina, Pellicularia filamentosa and Fusarium moniliforme.
Syndiotactic-heterotactic poly (sodium methacrylate) s with molecular weight 88032140, isotactic poly (sodium methacrylate) s with molecular weight 82013470 and poly (disodium fumarate) s with molecular weight 4708080 were prepared, and their building performances, Ca2+ sequestering capacity and dispersing power for MnO2, and the detergency on soiled cotton fabrics were also determined for the builders (with/ without sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate) and compared with the corresponding properties for sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) and disodium 3-oxapentanedioate (ODA). It was evident that poly (disodium fumarate) s showed better building performances than STPP, and the most effective molecular weight for these oligomers were 3630. The building performances and the detergency were dependent on their molecular weights of the oligomers and the most effective molecular weight (Mn) was10004000. The building performances and the detergency varied with their tacticities of the oligomers. Isotactic poly (sodium methacrylate) s showed better properties than syndiotactic-heterotactic poly (sodium methacrylate)s.
The behavior of carbon black which was coated with palmitic acid in a detergent solution was discussed in terms of the ζ-potential and the potential energy of interaction. The detergent was composed of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS);20%;zeolite, 20%;sodium silicate, 5%;sodium carbonate, 3%;sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, 1%;and sodium sulfate, 51%. Theζ-potential of the coated carbon black (coated-CB) in each aqueous solution of SDS, various builders, and the detergent were measured by a microelectrophoresis. The potential energies of interactions between coated-CB and fabrics (nylon and cellulose), between coated-CB and zeolite, between coated-CB and clay, and between coated-CB and carbon black were calculated by the use of the theory of heterocoagulation and that between coated-CB particles by the use of the DLVO theory. It is suggested from the total potential energy curves thus obtained that the coated-CB particles deposit onto cotton fabrics easily in SDS solution, but this deposition can be prevented by the addition of builders to the solution.
Three series of RAE block polymers with a general formula, CnAxEy [R : C4C12, A : 1, 2- epoxybutane (BO), styrene oxide (SO), and phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE), x : 211, E : ethylene oxide (EO), y : 540] were prepared by the usnal polyoxyethylatioa of the prodncts obtained by the polyaddition of A to long chain alcohols under the following conditions, catalyst : metallic K, temperature : 110150°C, pressure in N2 atmosphere : 24 atm. The base catalyzed addition of SO mainly gave normal ring-opening products (secondary alcohols). The least EO content required to give a water-soluble product was 3040% for BO series and 45 50% for SO, PGE series. Hydrophobicity of A block was found to increase in the order, propyleae oxide<BO<SO≈PGE, based on the relationship between cloud point and EO content of the products. With respect to surface-tension lowering, foaming and wettiag, BO series showed high ability close to that of alkyl poly (oxyethylene) ethers (CnEy), but, many of PGE series were less efficient. Some of SO amld PGE series with aromatic rings in the A block had a good suspending power for carbon and phthalocyanine. In emulsifying power for xylene, RAE polymers were superior to CnEy and Pluranics. Some discussions were presented on the relation of the structure in RAE polymer to the surfactant properties.
In the present work, the surface viscosities, closely related to the practical characteristics such as properties of foam, have been measured to depict the iso-surface-viscous curves on the triangular diagrams for alkanamide poly (oxyethylene) sulfate/N, N-diethanoldodecanamide (thickener) /water systems (concentration 00.1%). The surfactants used were sodium dodecanamide, tetradecanamide and hexadecanamide poly (oxyethylene) sulfates, and sodium dodecyl poly (oxyethylene) sulfate for comparison. Consequently, the following informations were obtained. (1) There lie 3 high surface viscosity regions, where the thickener is added slightly in the surfactant solutions (α), the surfactant is added slightly in the thickener solutions (β), and the thickener is added comparably to or more than the surfactants (γ). (2) While, with increase in the number of oxyethylene units in the surfactant molecule, α region is shifted to higher concentration of the surfactant and becomes more contracted, this region is shifted to lower concentration of the surfactant and surface viscosity increases remarkably with increase in alkane chain length. (3) As to, β region, no noticeable difference is found among the surfactants used. (4) γ region is the most extensive of 3 regions, and especially in the case of hexadecanamide poly (oxyethylene) sulfate it extends much more toward the water corner. (5) with increase in the number of oxyethylene units and in alkane chain length, surface viscosity in γ region increases, and in the latter case this region is shifted to higher concentration of the thickener. (6) In the case of dodecyl poly (oxyethylene) sulfate, α region is situated in higher concentration of the surfactant and more contracted than in corresponding alkanamide poly (oxyethylene) sulfate. However, γ region is more extensive and surface viscosity is higher.
2-Alkyl-2-cyclopentenones (2) were synthesized in three steps from 2, 3-epoxycyclopentanone (1) as described in Scheme-2. Compound (1) was reacted with ethylene glycol in the presense of p-toluenesulfonic acid to 2, 3-epoxy-1, 1- (ethylenedioxy) cyclopentane (4) (72% yield) which then reacted with alkyl lithium to 2-alkyl-3, 3- (ethylenedioxy) cyclopentanols (5) selectively. By treatment of (5) with an aqueous 10% sulfuric acid, (2) was obtained in quantitatively. Overall yields of 2-butyl-2-cyclopentenone (2 a), 2-pentyl-2-cyclopentenone (2 b), and 2-hexyl-2-cyclopentenone (2 c) from (1) were 66, 65, and 65%, respectively.
Dihydrotagetone (2, 6-dimethyl-7-octen-4-one) occurs in Tagetes glandulifera. This terpenic ketone was prepared by the radical addition reaction of methacrylaldehyde diethyl acetal (1) with 3-methylbutanal (2), followed by hydrolysis and Wittig reaction of the resulting γ-oxoaldehyde acetal. The radical addition reaction of (2) to (1) was carried out with benzoyl peroxide as an initiator in N2 atmosphere at 8590°C, 1, 1-diethoxy-2, 6-dimethyl-4-heptanone (3) being obtained in 49% yield. Hydrolysis of (3) with 10% H2SO4 in acetone gave 2, 6-dimethyl-4-oxoheptanal (8) in 92% yield.A Wittig reaction between (8) and methylenetriphenylphosphorane gave dihydrotagetone (9) in 65% yield.