Infrared analysis has been employed for the quantitative determination of α-content in normal α-olefin. In these usual methods no standardized sample has been determined by other methods without infrared analysis, accordingly only the approximate values were determined. Therefore, it was necessary to determine the purity of infrared-pure α-olefin by the use of other methods. For the purpose the authors applied a reductive ozonolysis. The reductive ozonolysis was carried out for infrared-pure 1-octadecene, obtained by pyrolysis of octadecyl acetate, and the ozonolysis products of which were aldehydes and ketones cloven at the double bonds and were analysed by gas liquid chromatography. As a result, 97.7% (average) of the heptadecyl aldehyde and little amount of C16, C15 and C11 fatty aldehydes and C15 ketone were found in the reductive ozonolysis products. The α-content of 1-octadecene was 97.7%, for the heptadecyl aldehyde corresponds to α-olefin, and standard deviation of this value was 0.43%. This standardized sample was used in the infrared analysis, and the absorptivities of the characteristic α-olefin bands at 10.10μ and 11.00μ were 38.0 and 124.1 respectively. These absorptivities gave satisfactory results for the determination of α-contents in various octadecenes.
Reaction between octanol and triethylamine were carried out by the use of Cu-Cr-O catalyst and metallic Cu powder. In the case of Cu-Cr-O catalysts good yields over 80% were obtained at 220250°C under 15kg/cm2 of initial hydrogen pressure. The catalytic activity of metallic Cu powder was less than that of Cu-Cr-O catalyst, but at higher reaction temperature (350°C) and by using large excess of triethylamine a good result was obtained as compared with Cu-Cr-O catalyst. Ethanol, diethylamine and ethane were confirmed in the reaction mixtures. The reaction mecanism, therefore, seemed to be direct trans alkylation between octanol and triethylamine of catalysts.
Methyl parinarate, elaeostearate and conjugated octadecadienoate were catalytically hydrogenated using palladium black and platinum black. Only octadecenoate and stearate were detected in the products from each ester by gas chromatographic analysis. Oxidation scission of octadecenoates produced from elaeostearate indicated the formation of nearly equimolar amounts of 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13-octadecenoates. Conjugated octadecadienoate was selectively hydrogenated in the presence of linoleate. One step hydrogenation mechanism from conjugated polyenoic acid to monoenoic acid is adequate to illustrate the results obtained rather than stepwise hydrogenation mechanism.
In the previous paper the rust-preventive properties of several alkylphosphonic acid derivatives were examined, and authors reported that 9 (10) -phosphonostearic acid had the good properties. In this paper the properties of 9 (10) -phosphonostearic acid were compared with that of other 9 (10) -substituted stearic acids, such as 9 (10) -carboxy-, 9 (10) -hydroxy-, 9 (10) -mercapto- and 9 (10) -amino-stearic acids, by the potassium ferricyanide test, salt water immersion test and humidity cabinet test. As a result it was found that 9 (10) -phosphonostearic acid had the more surpassing properties than the others.
Detergent industries in occidental countries are going to change the non-biodegradable alkylbenzene sulfonates derived from tetrapropylene (ABS) to biodegradable linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) in relation to programs envisaging the protection of water. It is said that most of the domestic sewage in those countries is treated in the sewage treatment plant by activated sludge units or trickling filters, owing to the wide spread of the public sewerage systems. It is known that LAS is biodegradable in this aerobic condition. In our country, most houses are provided with cesspools for their domestic sewage disposal systems. Little has been studied about the biodegradability of LAS in such relatively oxygen deficient conditions as in the cesspool and under the ground. 1. The detergent effect on the drainage behaviour in a newly prepared cesspool in a private lot A has been observed for 16 months, providing the test family with a specified light-duty LAS detergent as a substitution of commercial ABS detergents for their kitchen use. It was discovered that the test cesspool had maintained good drainage in comparison to the former cesspool which was located beside the test cesspool. As there has been no remarkable change in the consumption of the detergent and water since the changeover of the detergent and no difference was found in the bacteriostatic activities of LAS and ABS, the actual concentration of LAS in the test cesspool is presumed to be low enough to show no bacteriostatic action on bacteria which can degrade organic materials in the sewage. 2. The migration of the undegraded detergent residues from a cesspool into its neibouring well water was studied in the test lot A and in a private lot B of a nearly identical sewerage system and soil condition. It was found that the contamination of the detergent residues into well water (13m in depth) was undetectable in lot A. On the contrary, the trace amount of the detergent residues was observed in 20 meters deep well water of lot B where commercial ABS detergents had been used. This result shows that LAS is more biodegradable or removable than ABS in the cesspool or under the ground. 3. The biodegradabilities of four kinds of LAS and ABS were investigated by the aerobic storage test. All LAS showed more than 80% biodegradation within 24 hrs in the acclimated biological system prepared from sewage in the test cesspool, but nearly 48 hrs were needed to reach the same order of biodegradation in a similarly acclimated biological system prepared from sewage in the other cesspool of lot B. Under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, bacterial counting and their isolation were carried out on a soil sample taken from the bottom of the test cesspool with bouillon agar medium and synthetic agar medium containing 0.2% LAS. From the fact that those bacteria can grow on a synthetic medium containing 0.2 or 0.78% LAS as a whole source of hydrocarbon under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, it is suggested that LAS is biodegradable in the cesspool or under the ground. Identification of those effective baceria and the study on their ability to degrade LAS will be accomplished in the near future.
Authors investigated the property of water-soluble surface active agents as external antistatic agents for plastic resins. Sheets, films and monofilaments from plastic resins were dipped into aqueous solutions of surface active agents, picked up and dried at room temperature. The surface resistivity and charge generation by rubbing with Nylon were measured at 20°C and RH 65%. Anionic and nonionic surface active agents did not exhibit good antistatic property for plastic resins, but cationic and amphoteric surface active agents, which were very substantive with plastic resins, were demonstrated as the excellent antistatic agents. The property of external antistatic agents was diminished away by washing, long storage and rubbing with other articles.