Five Δ5-sterols, cholesterol, 22-dehydrocholesterol, brassicasterol, 24-methylenecholesterol and isofucosterol were isolated by silver nitrate-impregnated silicic acid column chromatography, from the unsaponifiable matters of lipids of a bivalve, japanese littleneck, Tapes japonica Deshayes. The sterols and acetates were examined by melting point, infrared absorption spectra, thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The presence of isofucosterol (24-ethylidenecholesterol) in mollusks was indicated. Moreover, the presence of the other sterols were showed by gas chromatography of methyl ether of sterol. All sterols identified were Δ5-sterols, but the presence of Δ5, 7-sterol was indicated from ultraviolet absorption spectrum and the rate of Liebermann Burchard reaction.
Authors attempted analysis for simultaneous determination of solid fat and water contained in margarine using NMR signal intensity method. The sample used were; different types of butters and margarines, blends of hardened beef tallow and corn-oil, with various amounts of water added to. The solid fat content from high resolution NMR and the solid fat index (S.F.I.) value from dilatometry tended similar in the lower level, less than 25 of the S.F.I. value, but the difference between the both methods became 20% or more in the higher level, more than 40 of the S.F.I. value. From the result of the quantitative analysis, the lowest detectable concentration of water was 3.4%. The accuracy of the area intensity method was found to be ±2% within the temperature range, 0° to 45°C.
Recently, various kinds of metal dialkyldithiocarbamates have been applied as lubricating oil additives. This paper deals with the separation and identification of metal dialkyldithiocarbamates having one to five carbon atoms in the alkyl group by partition paper chromatography. It was found that the solvent systems of liquid paraffin (stationary phase) -ethyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol (mobile phase) and polyoxyethylene octylphenolether (E.O. 10mol), triphenyl phosphate·tricresyl phosphate (1 : 1), cresyldiphenyl phosphate or dimethyl phthalate (stationary phase) -n-heptane (mobile phase) are suitable for partition paper chromatography of these metal dialkyldithiocarbamates. Rf values of metal dialkyldithiocarbamates are principally affected by the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group and not affected so much by the kind of metal in the solvent system of liquid paraffin-ethyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol. On the other hand, the kind of metal affects remarkably the Rf values as well as the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group in the other solvent systems. Metal dialkyldithiocarbamates in lubricating oils can be concentrated by silica gel and alumina adsorption chromatography, and they can be applied to prepare the sample for partition paper chromatography.
The authors synthesized cationic surfactants containing dimethylpolysiloxane whose hydrophobic groups were linear, two-chained and three-chained, and investigated their surface activities. Regardless of the structure of hydrophobic groups, these cationic surfactants indicated excellent surface activities to give the lowest values of surface tension in aqueous solutions, as low as 22 to 23 dynes/cm. But they lost their surface activities in acidic (pH<4.5) and basic (pH>9.5) aqueous solutions. They also indicated excellent foaming ability and foam stability, and are expected to have a utility as foaming agents. In respect to the bacteriostatic action, the cationic surfactants (CH3CH2CH2CH2) 3M (CH2) 3N+ (CH3) 3Cl- (M=Si, Sn) indicated especially strong activities.
Several metal complexes were sythesized by the reaction of polyoxyethylene alkylamine with chlorides of some metals, such as calcium, barium, magnecium, zinc, tin, manganees, copper, nickel, cobalt, iron. Another metal complexes were prepared from some inorganic and organic acid salts. These salts used were sulfate, nitrate, perchlorate, p-toluene sulfonate, benzoate, phthalate, maleate, sebacate and several fatty carboxylates. The properties of these metal complexes as internal antistatic agents for PVC were evaluated by measuring the frictional charge generated and charge decay by Rotary Static Tester, and these were found to be effective antistatic agents with good thermal stability. The most effective range of the moles of ethylene oxide added was about 10 to 15. Metal complexes made from metallic chloride were generally good antistatic agents, and among the fatty acid salts, calcium and cupric acetate gave the most effective complexes. Organic acid metal complexes, except p-toluene sulfonic acid salt, were less effective.
Methyleneblue active substance (MBAS), COD, NH3-N and Cl- concentrations in the water of the Tama River were measured from Feb. 1968 to May 1970. From the results, it was confirmed that the Tama River has been polluted continuously with domestic and industrial sewage, and that the natural purification was also proceeding considrably in the midstream of the river. Infrared spectroscopic data show that the existence ratio of LAS to ABS was found to be 20 : 80 (1967), 35 : 65 (1968) and 61 : 39 (1969). The ratio of LAS has been increasing year by year.
Quaternary ammonium salts were prepared from alkylbenzyl chlorides and pyridine or triethylamine for the purpose of useful application of long-chain alkylbenzenes. Surface activities of these aqueous solutions were determined and compared each other in respects to surface and interfacial tensions, solubilization power and critical micelle concentration (cmc). Pyridinium salts were found to be superior than triethylammonium compounds in surface and interfacial tensions. Surfactants containing C3-alkyl group did not show good surface activity and those with C12C16-alkyl group showed good ability to depress the both tensions. The order of effect of alkyl groups on the ability for depression of both tensions were as follows : C8H17<C10H21<C12H25<C16H33<C14H29 Solubilization power for p-dimethylaminobenzene was determined and the results of the experiments showed that lower alkyl groups made the pyridinium salts better than the triethylammonium salts, but the reverse was the case as to the higher alkyl groups. In comparison with triethylammonium salts the pyridinium salts had lower value of cmc when alkyl groups were lower, and had higher values when alkyl groups were higher. Thus it was concluded that surfactants containing C14-alkyl group had best surface activities in all respects.