Soybean seeds were germinated in the laboratory at 23±2°C for 7 days and the weight of total dry matter and of lipid were measured at every 24hr-interval. Lipid from germinated soybean seeds was fractionated by using acetone into phosphatides and fatty oil. The fatty acid composition was measured by gas-liquid chromatography. The unsaponifiable matter was analysed by infrared spectrophotometry and thin-layer chromatography by routine methods. There was a continuous decrease in the weight of dry matter and lipid of the whole seedlings of soybean for 7 days germination. The weight of free fatty acids and unsaponifiable matter increased greatly during germination. A marked decrease in Iodine Value (from 135.8 to 117.1) of the lipid was observed during the first 24 hours of germination. In the germination period, the percentage of octadecadienoic and octadecatrienoic acid in the soybean oil decreased, but that of saturated fatty acids increased. The percentage of octadecenoic acid in the fatty oil decreased as germination progressed, except for the first one day after germination. As the germination progressed, the weight of glycerides remaining in the soybeans varied a great deal, but only a little change was observed in the fatty acid composition of the reserved glycerides. The percentage of conjugated dienoic acids increased with the progress of germination.
The characteristic flavor of natural butter from Hokkaido was studied by means of standard methods. The natural butter was treated with 5% KOH-C2H5OH solution obtaining saponifiable matter. Authors found δ-n-propyl- (VIIIa), δ-n-butyl- (VIII), δ-n-amylvalerolactone (VIIIc) as its new flavor. δ-Alkylvalerolactone (VIII) was prepared from resorcin (I) as follows : ethyl-, allyl-, and crotylcyclohexane-2, 6-dione (IIIa, b, c) were prepared by reduction of I into dihydroresorcin (II) followed by ethylation, allylation and crotylation. The resulting IIIa, b, c were hydrolyzed by Ba (OH) 2 solution, to give 5-ketocaprylic, 5-keto-8-nonenoic and 5-keto-8-decenoic acid (IVa, b, c), thus IVa, b, c were esterified with ethanol, the resulting ethylester (Va, b, c) were reduced into oxy acid ester (VIIa, b, c) by Meerwein-Ponndorfs' method or catalytic reduction on palladium. VIIa, b, c were saponified with 5% KOH-C2H5OH solution then acidified with 10% H2SO4 solution thus obtaining WIIIa, b, c respectively.
Co-oxidation of styrene and d-limonene was carried out in the presence of cobalt acetate catalyst in acetic acid. It was found that oxidation of styrene was remarkably accelerated by d-limonene obtaining benzaldehyde in relatively high yield.
The reaction of acrolein with ethanol yielded ethyl acrylate (EA), propionaldehyde diethyl-acetal (PAEt2), acrolein diethylacetal (AcEt2), β-ethoxypropionaldehyde (EP) and its acetal (AcEt3) in the presence of complexes such as RuCl2 (C12H18), RuCl3·3H2O, [RhGl (C8H14) 2] 2, [RhCl (C2H4) 2] 2, RhCl (PPh3) 3 and IrCl (CO) (PPh3) 2. Among them, RuCl2 (C12H18) was the most effective catalyst for the formation of EA, but the yield of which was ca. 10%. Ethyl propionate as well as EA was formed with increase of the reaction temperature. The presence of oxygen in the reaction catalyzed by RuCl2 (C12H18) increased the yields of the products. In these reactions, the yields of EA, PAEt2, EP and AcEt3 increased gradually, while the yield of AcEt2 at first increased and then levelled down. These results indicated the following reaction scheme : On the other hand, the formation of EA proceeded through an acyl-type complex formed by the oxidative addition of acrolein to the metals, followed by the attack of ethanol. Hydrogen atoms formed in this reaction might be transferred to acrolein to give PAEt2 by the reaction with ethanol. Use of propionaldehyde in place of acrolein afforded ethyl propionate, but its yield was very low as compared with that of EA derived from acrolein.
Cotton fabrics for the standard artificial soiling recommended by JOCS are used for the treatment under conventional industrial conditions. Their properties, however, are different markedly from lot to lot owing to the finishing conditions. Accordingly, authors investigated the quality change of the fabrics during oxidative bleaching by sodium hypochlolite solution. The change of copper number and average polymerization degree (fluidity), as well as the tensile and tear strength of bleached fabrics were determined. Results obtained are as follows : 1) With the increases in copper number and/or fluidity of oxidized cellulose, the fabrics become to be easily soiled and the artificially soiled fabrics are easily desoiled as well. 2) Copper number and fluidity of oxidized cellulose are intimately related to the tear and tensile strength. Chemical damage of the fabrics caused by bleaching can also be detected from these measurements. The authors found a clue to control the bleaching condition in order to supply standard cotton fabrics of constant properties.
Transition behavior of alkylammonium halides was investigated by means of DTA, IR spectrum, X-ray diffraction, dielectric constant and microscopic observation. Dodecylammonium chloride (DAC) had three transition points A (45°C), B (58°C) and C (69°C). B and C were reversible, but A was not found on the first heating step. DAC seems to have the thermal behavior as follows. At the first transition point A, DAC dissociated into dodecylamine (DA) and free hydrochloride, and the complex is produced between DA and DAC at B. The crystal structure of this complex, which is monoclinic, changes into other structure at C. On the first heating step, the dissociation seems to be occurred at B. In the case of dodecyl-ammonium bromide and dodecylammonium iodide, A was already found on the first heating step.
Oxidation of 3-carene  with red lead in glacial acetic acid and acetic anhydride at 60±2°C gave; p-cymene-8-ol acetate  as main product and p-cymene , 3-carene-2-ol acetate , α-terpinyl acetate , 1, 1, 4-trimethyl-2, 4-cycloheptadiene-6-ol acetate  and trans-carvenyl acetate  as minor ingredients of the products. Oxidation compound  have a mild wood-like odor, and this may be useful as a stable perfume.