Several studies have been worked out on the preparation of odorless and colorless marine oil by means of molecular distillation. One of the problems in using these distilled oils is their low stability due to the high content of double bond. The effects of polymerization of whale oil have been investigated by the authors in order to increase its stability by the decrease of double bonds through polymerization before molecular distillation. In this report the following experiments were carried out to find the effect of polymerization of whale oil for its stability, and the effect of addition of vegetabl eoil unsaponifiable matters to several modified oils. The polymerization of whale oil was tested at 170°C and 260°C in the presence of active earth under nitrogen atmosphere. The polymerization proceeded at 260°C, and the A.O.M. stability of the oil increased as the iodine value decreased, whereas it did not proceed at 170°C. Unsaponifiable matters of vegetable oils were added to several kinds of modified oil (whale oil free from unsaponifiables by molecular distillation, refined whale oil, hydrogenated whale oil and polymerized whale oil), and A.O.M. stabilities thereof were determined. Authors observed that the addition of vegetable unsaponifiable matter was effective for the stability of whale oil, especially for the hydrogenated oil, and that the addition of soybean oil unsaponifiable matters was more effective than others.
In the previous part 1 of this series, the author reported that the antarctic sei whale blubber oil comprizes more than 45 fatty acids including minor constituents such as polyunsaturated odd-numbered and branched-chain fatty acids. The present paper describes detailed examination of component fatty acids obtained from the antarctic fin whale blubber oil by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) using a hydrogen flame ionization detector. The refined sample oil was converted directly into methyl esters by alkali-catalyzed methanolysis, and the resulting crude methyl esters were separated by silicic acid column chromatography, urea-complex fractionation and preparative silica gel thin-layer chromatography. Each fraction was then analyzed by GLC before and after hydrogenation. As a result, qualitative or semi-quantitative evidence was corroborated for the presence of numerous fatty acids ranging from 12 to 24 carbon atoms in chain length in the sample oil as well as sei whale oil. Special interests were polyunsaturated odd-numbered fatty acids (19 : 5, 21 : 5), and particularly the existence of mufti-branched-chain and presumable existence of unsaturated branched-chain fatty acids as a minor constituent. In addition, the values of equivalent chain length (ECL) were determined on unknown ingredients by GLC.
Di- (1, 2 : 5, 6-diisopropylidene-D-glucose) dicarboxylate was prepared from 1, 2 : 5, 6-diisopropylidene-D-glucose and dimethyl ester of dibasic acid (i.e. adipic, pimelic azelaic and sebacic), by transesterification in dimethylformamide. The same ester was also obtained by acylation of 1, 2 : 5, 6-diisopropylidene-D-glucose with the chloride of the above dibasic acid. The ester thus obtained was converted into di- (D-glucose) dicarboxylate by sulfuric acid. After evaluation studies, a fairly promising emusifying property was found for the latter ester.
The thin-layer chromatography technique using the plate with coated silica including of 5% calcium sulphate and the solvent system consisting of methylethylketone-benzen-ethanol-water was successfully applied to the general analysis of both commercial liquid shampoo and liquid dish washing detergents in the previous report. Subsequently, the authors tested about the cationic surface active agents contained in commercial and prepared hair rinses or hair conditioners by the entirely same experimental conditions, and cationic surfactants were separated and identified from the mixture of emulsifiers, fatty acid alkylolamides, higher fatty alcohols, and lanolin. It was also possible to separate the above additive components by the selection of suitable indicating reagents.
Author measured the water content in water-in-oil emulsions automatically by detecting capacitance increment in such emulsions due to the increase of water content. Accuracies are better than ±0.1% as water content up to 5% in usual lubricating oils. The apparatus consists of 1kc oscillator, transformer bridge, phase detector, Schmitt trigger circuit and relay. In case of recording the measuring condenser is rotated at a constant speed, while the signal from relay is also available to give an alarm or orders to control system, when the measuring condenser is previously fixed at a desired value.