油化学
Online ISSN : 1884-2003
ISSN-L : 0513-398X
40 巻 , 5 号
選択された号の論文の14件中1~14を表示しています
  • 小島 直也
    1991 年 40 巻 5 号 p. 344-351
    発行日: 1991/05/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    New cell recognition system based on the interaction between carbohydrates of glycolipids on cell surfaces is described. Specific carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions between some kinds of glycolipids were observed using glycolipid-containing liposomes and glycolipid coated solid phase. In addition, glycolipid dependent cell adhesion which occurs through specific carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction was also observed.
    The carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions are able to show both attractive and repulsive interactions which depend on the carbohydrate structures, whereas interactions of other cell recognition molecules such as adhesive proteins and carbohydrate binding proteins show only adhesion. The specificity and strength of carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction are also controlled by fattyacid composition of glycolipid, and surface glycolipid density. Thus, the specificities of the cell recognition system through carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction could vary more than those of other cell recognition systems through protein-protein and protein-carbohydrate interactions.
  • 伊東 信
    1991 年 40 巻 5 号 p. 352-360
    発行日: 1991/05/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Endoglycoceramidase (EGCase) cleaves the linkage between oligosaccharides and ceramides of various glycosphingolipids, leaving simultaneously both intact ceramides and oligosaccharides. Taking advantage of the specificity of EGCase, we have found it very useful in the structural studies of glycosphingolipids.A detergent was required for EGCase to express full activity, possibly due to their hydrophobic nature, and therefore EGCase cannot be used for research on live cells. Recently, activator proteins regarding the stimulation of EGCase activity in the absence of detergents were discovered. When using activator proteins in place of Triton X-100 for stimulating EGCase activity, it was also noted to cause no damage to intact cells. It is thus possible by activator proteins to elucidate the biological functions of endogenous glycosphingolipids in situ by EGCase.
  • 岩森 正男
    1991 年 40 巻 5 号 p. 361-369
    発行日: 1991/05/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Glycolipids are the hybrid molecules constructed with the hydrophilic carbohydrate chain and the hydrophobic side chain. The characteristic change in the structure of glycolipids is usually observed among different animal species, different organs, tissues and cells of the same animals, and cells in the different proliferation-and differentiation-stages. Recent approaches for characterization of the meaning on the glycolipid-heterogeneity clearly indicates the involvement of glycolipids in a signal transducer and a modulator of functional proteins. For example, glycolipids appeared in association with differentiation can effectively induce the differentiation in human myeloid and monocytoid leukemia cells, and the keratinization in fetal rat keratinocytes. And addition of glycolipids, which do not contain in the target neuroblastoma cells, to the culture medium, can induce the neurite outgrowth of the cells.
  • 木曽 真, 長谷川 明
    1991 年 40 巻 5 号 p. 370-378
    発行日: 1991/05/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Among the biologically active glycolipids, much attention is now focused on gangliosides because of their newly discovered involvement in cell growth, differentiation, adhesion, oncogenesis, and so on. Gangliosides are structurally heterogenous molecules, composed of a glycan chain containing sialic acid (s) and a hydrophobic ceramide. They are located as very minor constituents on the plasma membrane of almost all mammalian cells. In order to elucidate the structure-function relationships at the molecular level, the syntheses of a variety of gangliosides, including their derivatives and analogs, are of absolute necessity. This article describes the systematic chemical syntheses of gangliosides with a special reference to our methods. Also, some analyses of biological functions and biomedical applications are discussed.
  • 小林 一清
    1991 年 40 巻 5 号 p. 379-383
    発行日: 1991/05/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Glycolipid-analogous polysaccharides with well-defined structures are of interest in connection with the development of new types of specialty polysaccharides. This review article highlights the following four topics. (1) Emulsan, a naturally occurring microbial surfactant polysaccharide, is an efficient emulsifier. (2) Trialkylcellulose prepared by esterification of cellulose forms Langmuir-Brodget membranes. (3) Cyclodextrins substituted with long alkyl chain in position 6 of each glucose unit are found to form monolayers, which bind guest molecules to assemble host-guest LB membranes. (4) Three types of regiospecifically modified polysaccharides were synthesized via ring-opening polymerizations of anhydro sugar derivatives. (a) 3-O-Octadecyl- (1→6) -α-D-glucopyranan homopolysaccharide, (b) Partially 3-O-octadecylated (1→6) -α-D-glucopyranans, (c) Copolysaccharides consisting of nonsubstituted and 2, 3, 4-tri-O-substituted glucose units. Their functions based on the amphiphilic properties are discussed.
  • 後藤 光昭, 砂本 順三
    1991 年 40 巻 5 号 p. 384-391
    発行日: 1991/05/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Several methodologies for making liposome more stable and more cell specific are introduced in this review article. They involve reconstitutions of glycoproteins or glycolipids into liposomal membranes and coating the outermost surface of liposomal membranes with naturally occurring polysaccharides. Results in the in vitro and in vivo evaluation of such the modified liposomes are also described from the view points of their chemical, physicochemical, and biochemical stabilities and cell compatibility and specificity.
    In addition, the usefulness of these glyco-conjugated liposomes, for example, in receptormediated drug targeting or liposomal vaccines in medicine and serum free cell culture in biotechnology, is briefly introduced.
  • 坪根 和幸, 内田 典子
    1991 年 40 巻 5 号 p. 392-399
    発行日: 1991/05/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    2-ヒドロキシプロピル基とエーテル酸素を持つホスホベタイン型両性界面活性剤・2- [N- (3-アルコキシ-2-ヒドロキシプロピル) -N, N-ジメチルアンモニオ」エチル水素ホスフェート [I] を合成し, その水溶液の界面化学的物性と抗微生物活性をリン酸 2- (N-アルキル-N-メチルアミノ) エチル=ナトリウム [II] と比較した。 [I] の臨界ミセル濃度は低く, 2-ヒドロキシプロピル基, エーテル酸素及びホスホベタイン骨格が疎水性の増大に影響した。一方, [I] と [II] のグラム陽性菌とグラム陰性菌に対する活性は低いが, カビに対してはいずれもアルキル鎖長の増加に伴い強まり, [I] のカビに対するMICは [II] よりも臨界ミセル濃度に大きく依存した。2- [- (3-テトラデシルオキシ-2-ヒドロキシプロピル) -N, N-ジメチルアンモニオ] エチル水素ホスフェートの抗カビ作用はリン酸2- (N-ヘキサデシル-N-メチルアミノ) エチル=ナトリウムと同程度で, クロルヘキシジングルコネートより優れていた。
  • 上野 實, 城ノ下 幸慶, 長倉 秀一, 鈴木 誠司, 伊藤 博樹, 若山 善明, 大沢 重光, 対馬 勇禧, 小山 典利
    1991 年 40 巻 5 号 p. 400-405
    発行日: 1991/05/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    種々の胆汁酸塩のミセル溶液中へのd-α-トコフェロール (VE) の可溶化, これらミセルの会合数及びラット小腸管内におけるミセル溶液からのVEの呼吸が研究された。ミセル溶液はグリココール酸ナトリウム (NaGC), グリコデオキシコール酸ナトリウム (NaGDC), グリコケノデオキシコール酸ナトリウム (NaGCDC) タウロコール酸ナトリウム (NaTC), タウロデオキシコール酸ナトリウム (NaTDC) 及びこれら5種の胆汁酸塩の混合系から調製された。VEの可溶化量は胆汁酸塩濃度の増加とともに増加した。ヒドロキシル基を2個持つ胆汁酸塩は3個持つものよりもVEを多く可溶化した。ミセルの会合数は14から18の間にあり, VEの飽和可溶化量とはほとんど関係がなかった。
    VEの小腸管内の吸収は小腸管のマイクロビリ膜表面によって, または胆汁酸塩濃度によって影響されるものと考えられる。
  • 平田 博文, 山科 孝雄, 樋口 勝彦
    1991 年 40 巻 5 号 p. 406-414
    発行日: 1991/05/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    N-スクシンイミジルアリールアセテート (1a) によるタンパク質のアミノ基の化学修飾 (N-アリールアセチル化) 反応をモデルタンパクとして牛血清アルブミン (BSA) を選び, 7.0≦pH≦9.0, 20℃で速度論的に検討した。N-アリールアセチル化は (1a) の加水分解と競争的に起こり, 修飾速度はV=k2 [BSAのアミノ基] [1a] で示すことができた。メタ置換 (1a) による修飾の二次速度定数, k2, の対数値は相当する安息香酸の相対酸強度, log (K/K0), と良好な直線関係を示し, そのプロットの傾きは正であり, pHには無関係に一定であった。オルト置換体による修飾の速度は, 置換基の立体障害のため速度が遅くなることが認められた。BSAのアミノ基は等価でないため, pHプロフィルの傾きは1以下であった。速度比, 10-3k2/k1 [k1は (1a) の加水分解速度を示す], はすべて1以上であり, pH8.5付近で最大値を示していた。 (1a) とN-スクシンイミジルベンゾエート (1b) 及びN-アシロキシスクシンイミド (1c) との反応性の違いを調べた。BSAと長鎖のアルキル基を有する (1c) との間には強い疎水性相互作用があり, 速度の上昇が認められたが, アリールアセチル基やアリール基はアルキル基と比べて疎水性が弱いため, (1a) (p-Cl体以外) や (1b) では速度の上昇は認められなかった。
    以上の結果から, (1a) がタンパク質のリシン残基やN末端のアミノ基の化学修飾に利用できることが結論できた。また, 上記の結果及び化学化合物との反応性との比較から, 修飾反応のより詳細な機構についての考察を行った。
  • 松村 秀一, 小林 理香, 〓川 貞雄
    1991 年 40 巻 5 号 p. 415-421
    発行日: 1991/05/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Poly (sodium carboxylate) s containing glucopyranose residues as biodegrading segments in the polymer chain were prepared from starch by partial conversion of the vicinal diols of glucopyranose units into the corresponding dicarboxylates via dialdehydes. Their biodegradability and building performance in detergents were examined. Relation of glucopyranose group content in the polymer chain with biodegradability as well as functionality are discussed. Polycarboxylates containing glucopyranose residues as biodegradable segments were shown to have improved biodegradability and better building performance in detergents, and thus may be useful as biodegrading units in a polymer. Some microbes capable of degrading polycarboxylates were isolated by an enrichment culture technique from activated sludge. Biodegradability and building performance in detergents of the polycarboxylates were also found to vary inversely with the degree of dicarboxylation. Polymers with a lower degree of dicarboxylation, e.g. a higher glucopyranose content, showed better biodegradability.
  • 遠藤 正行, 鷺谷 広道, 真知田 宏
    1991 年 40 巻 5 号 p. 422-426
    発行日: 1991/05/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    A new method, a combination of the tape-stripped and paper-absorbent methods, was developed for measuring the distribution of peroxide and skin surface lipids on their depth in human stratum corneum. Peroxide lipids were shown to be produced not only in the top layer of the stratum corneum in the skin of people not exposed to sunlight but in the deep layer as well. Their compositions were correlated to those of skin surface lipids. Peroxide lipids in the outer layer were more easily produced than those in inner layers, possibly due to higher squalene content in the outer lipids. The removal of peroxide and skin surface lipids from the stratum corneum was also conducted and the washing properties were noted to differ. Peroxide lipids not only in the outer layer but also in the inner layer could be washed away while washing removed skin surface lipids only from the top layer. The addition of a cleanser enhanced removal efficiency.
    The removal efficiency of three surfactants differing in hydrophilic groups, i.e. phosphate, sulfate and carboxylate groups, was assessed. The phosphate type surfactant was found more capable of removing skin surface lipids in the stratum corneum.
    Based on the present results, an ideal cleanser should wash away peroxide lipids situated deeply within and harmful to the skin, but only skin surface lipids which function as a surfactant barrier.
  • 杉田 陸海, 平塚 美保, 糸乗 前, 成島 謙司, 亀村 和生, 堀 太郎
    1991 年 40 巻 5 号 p. 427-431
    発行日: 1991/05/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    A specific method for determining α-mannosidase activity was developed using an enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a specific polyclonal antibody which recognizes theterminal Man β1-4 structure of the reaction product, mannosylglucosylceramide (Man β1-4 Glc β1-ceramide, MlOse2Cer). In the assay, the dimannosylglucosylceramide substrate (Man α1-3 Man β1-4 Glc β1-ceramide, MlOse3Cer) immobilized on the solid phase of a 96-wellmicrotiter plate was incubated with Canavalia ensiformis α-mannosidase in citrate buffer containing detergent. The optimum conditions for the enzyme assay were as follows : buffer solution, 0.05 M citrate buffer (pH 4.04.5); detergent, sodium taurodeoxycholate (40 μg); enzyme concentration, 1.0 μg (1 mU); substrate concentration, 300 ng (300 pmole) : total reaction volume, 200 μL; incubation time, 1 h. Three sequential additions with washes between each were applied as follows : polyclonal antibody against the exposed Man β1-4 groups (anti-MlOse2Cer), peroxidase-conjugated anti-rabbit IgG antiserum against anti-MlOse2Cer, and peroxidase substrate. By this method, it became possible to quantitate the amount of reaction product, MlOse2 Cer, when present as low as 25 pmole.
  • W. D. Pocklington
    1991 年 40 巻 5 号 p. 432-437
    発行日: 1991/05/20
    公開日: 2010/01/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    IUPAC油脂及び同誘導体委員会は塩素を含まない溶剤を用いるヨウ素価の定量に関する合同実験を1989~1990年に実施した。11か国, 18機関がこれに参加し, 日本からは, 日本食品油脂検査協会と日本油料検定協会が参加した。IUPACの機関誌 Pure& Applied Chemistry, 62, 2339~2343, (1990) に掲載された定量法と合同実験結果の全文をここに転載する。
  • 1991 年 40 巻 5 号 p. 454
    発行日: 1991年
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
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