Authors could make clear that the total unsaturation of α, β-unsaturated organic acids (crotonic acid, acrylic acid, methacrylic acid and maleic acid) can be estimated quickly by the method using aqueous solution of bromine chloride prepared by acidifying the aqueous solution of potassium bromate and potassium bromide with hydrochloric acid. The iodine value of fatty materials containing isolated double bonds (oleic acid, methyl erucinate, olive oil, rape seed oil and sesame oil), and water insoluble acid samples such as cinnamic acid containing α, β-ethylene linkage were measured by the method using the solution of bromine chroride in glacial acetic acid. The results obtained in the analysis by the method were essentially similar to that of the Wijs method, except the results in the case of cinnamic acid. There is a remarkable agreement between the estimated iodine value of cinnamic acid and its theoretical value.
Epoxidation of stigmasterol, followed by cleavage of the oxide with methylmagnesium iodide, oxidation of 6 β-methyl-3β, 5α-diol and hydrogen chloride dehydration of 6 β-methyl-5 α-ol-3-one afforded 6 α-methyl-Δ4, 22-stigmastadiene-3-one in an over-all yield of 22%.
1. The object of this study is to find the factors which affect to the change in the foaming properties in deep fat frying and to make clear the quantitative relations, commonly appliable to all frying oils, between the foaming properties and these factors. 2.50g or 100g of linseed oil, safflower oil, olive oil, palm oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil and castor oil in 300 cc beakers were heated at 200°C or 220°C for about 10 hrs. At every interval of 30 minutes, a piece of potato was dipped in the oil and the state of foaming was recorded. Thus, we prepared the sample of which a half part of the surface was covered by foams when a piece of potato was dipped in, and the sample, in which entire surface was covered by foam, in respect to the each oil. We designated as the half-foaming oils for the former and as the whole-foaming oils for the latter, respectively. The viscosities of these samples were determined at 25°C and 200°C. These foaming oils were fractionated by column chromatographic method into 3 fractions, using silicagel treated with n-hexane containing 5% of i-propyl ether as the absorbent. Foaming oil samples were eluted with 15% i- propyl ether in hexane to yield first fraction (F1); 60% i-propyl ether in hexane to yield the second fraction (F2) and with ethyl ether to yield the third fraction (F3). It was reported in our previous paper that F3 was mainly composed of oxidative-polymerized matter and this was main substances which caused foaming of thermally oxidized soybean oils. 3. The rate of increase in viscosity were varied according to the type of oils and the heating conditions. Taking the same kind of oils, the samples having the same viscosity showed the same foaming tendencies, even though they were prepared under different conditions. But the samples which showed the same foaming tendency but originated from different oils did not show the same viscosities. Thus, we failed to find any such relation between the rate of increase in viscosity or the absolute value of viscosity at 200°C and the foaming tendencies in various oils. The half-foaming oils originating from various oils contained 810% of F3 fractions and the whole-foaming oils contained 1214% of F3 farctions. The contents of F3 seemed to influence the foaming properties of frying oils.
Properties of the phospholipids contained in Euphausia superba separated from stomach of fin whale in the Antarctic Ocean were studied from the view point of utilization of macro-plankton. Mixed fatty acids prepared from the phospholipids were identified with paper chromatography, as their 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazones for the saturated acids, and as their mercuric acetate complexes for the acids of lower, unsaturation. The data of paper chromatography indicated the presence of myristic, palmitic, stearic, arachidic, behenic, palmitoleic, oleic, eicosenoic, docosenoic, linoleic and linolenic acids in the phospholipids. The authors also carried out silica gel column chromatography and silicic acid paper chromatography and the results indicated the presence of polyglycerophosphoic acid, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl serene, phosphatidyl choline, sphingomyelin and monophosphoinositide in the phospholipids fraction.
The behavior of antistatic agents applied to textile fibers was studied. Surface active agents (SAA) used in this work were purified highly. Surface electric resistivity of fibers treated with SAA solutions and specific conductivity of the solutions were measured. Besides, the effect of added electrolyte and the orientation of SAA to the fibers were also studied. Surface electric resistivity decreased as the concentration of SAA solutions increased and in the vicinity of the critical micelle concentration of SAA it once increased and again decreased in the higher concentration. It may be concluded that antistatic effect is greatly affected by the micelle state of used solutions. Inorganic salts added to SAA solutions did not afford electric conductivity to the fibers but contributed to the change of the micelle state of SAA solutions. The addition of NaCl to the solutions of cationic surfactants (CSA) resulted in an increase in the sorption of CSA by fibers and was effective in antistatic effect, but NaOH was not. It is suitable for antistatic treatment to use CSA together with electrolyte having the tendency to salt out CSA and to make micelle molecular weight larger. Antistatic effect of fibers treated in organic solvent was less than that treated in water, because of low micelle molecular weight. Piles of Nylon, Dacron, cotton and glass fiber treated with SAA were dispersed in benzol-water and the orientation to fibers of SAA was studied by observing in which of the two layers they dispersed. Following result was obtained; CSA in benzol, anionic surfactants in water. But piles treated with Na dioctyl phosphate which is the only antistatic agent of anionic surfactants dispersed in benzol or interface. It may be due to the orientation of SAA to fibers that CSA and Na dioctyl phosphate exhibit good antistatic properties.
It has been reported that characteristic IR absorption bands of steroid 5, 6-oxides are observed at 10351050cm-1 and 870875cm-1. IR spectra of cholesterol-α-oxide, its acetate, cholesterol-β-oxide, its acetate, cholestan-3β, 5α, 6β-triol, its triacetate, stigmasterol-5, 6α-oxide, its acetate and stigmast erol-5, 6β-oxide acetate ware compared. As a result, the above absorption bands at 10351050cm-1 and 870875cm-1 were also.observed in the spectra of the triol and triacetate. It was observed that characteristic absorption bands of sterol 5, 6-oxides were 685690cm-1 (α, β;3-OH, 3-AcO), 716720cm-1 (α, β;3-AcO), 748752cm-1 (α;3-OH, 3-AcO), 784786cm-1 (β;3-OH, 3-AcO) and 798cm-1 (α, 3-OH).