The relation between molecular orientation and surface active property was investigated on the following oil-soluble organoboron surfactants with a hydrophobic group substituted for one hydroxyl radical. Glycerol mono (12-hydroxystearoyl) glycerol borate (GHSGB) Glycerol monoricinoleoyl-glycerol borate (GRGB) The lowering abilities of interfacial tention of the above surfactants were better than those of glycerol monoacylglycerol borates with an unsubstituted straight hydrophobic group in lower concentration region, but were worse in higher concentration region. Transition points were observed on both II-A curves of GHSGB and GRGB. The same short spacing 4.16Å was shown in X-ray diffraction patterns of GHSGB and glycerol monostearoylglycrol borate solidified from the melt. Two steps interfacial orientations of GHSGB and GRGB were suggested by those results.
X-ray diffraction of glycerol mono (12-hydroxystearoyl) glycerol borate (GHSGB) was measured and its two crystal forms were found. GHSGB from the melt (α-form) had a single strong short spacing line at 4.16Å, and the one from solvent crystallization (β-form) had three strong short spacing lines at 4.00, 4.17 and 4.53Å. Long spacings of α- and β-form were observed at 73Å and 70Å, respectively. DSC and IR spectra data of GHSGB were discussed in addition to those X-ray analyses.
Calcium ion sequestration capacities have been determined for eleven kinds of organic compounds in comparison with sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) which is known as the most important detergent builder. The organic compounds used in this study were amino carboxylates (EDTA, NTA), hydroxy carboxylates (sodium lactate, tartarate, citrate, gluconate), and dicarboxylates (sodium oxalate, maleate, malonate, succinate, L-aspargmate). The sequestration capacities of these organic compounds depend on the pH of the solution. The most prominent characteristic of sodium citrate was found in the pH 9 region.
A series of maleic monoesters of mono and trioxyethylated 1-dodecanol, 2-dodecanol, 6-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol, 2-tetradecanol, and 7-tetradecanol was synthesized. The cmc, surface tension reduction, calcium ion stability, and lime soap dispersing power of their sodium salt solution were determined. The introduction of oxyethylene groups caused the decrease of cmc and markedly improved the calcium ion stability. On heating the calcium soap solution, the cloud points were observed. The influence of oxyethylene groups on the cmc and the calcium ion stability was discussed in terms of the hydration of oxyethylene groups and the complexation of oxyethylene groups in micelle with metal ion.
An automated method for the determination of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) in detergents was developed by the use of Technicon Auto Analyzer. The aqueous solution of a sample, which was the insoluble materials of detergents in 95 % ethyl alcohol solution, was directly introduced into the Auto Analyzer. The solution was mixed with anthrone dissolved in 80 vol/vol% sulfuric acid solution, heated in an oil bath held at 99°C for 1415 min and then color intensity was measured at 620 nm automatically. The accuracy is within 3% relative. However, bleaching agents, such as sodium perborate and sodium percarbonate, decomposed anthrone and interfered the determination of CMC. In these cases, they were decomposed before the determination by boiling in the presence of sodium chloride. By this treatment, CMC in detergents containing bleaching agents could also be determined within the same accuracy. Therefore, this automated method should be applicable to the determination of CMC in detergents.
The reaction of carboxylic acids, esters, and acid anhydrides with alkenylmagnesium bromide yields mixtures of alkenones and alkenols as the main products. The reaction of vinylmagnesium bromide gives similar results to that of vinylmagnesium chloride. The reactions of isopropenylmagnesium bromide or 1-propenylmagnesium bromide with acids, esters, and anhydrides produce mainly isopropenyl ketones.
Decomposition of cumyl hydroperoxide and t-butyl hydroperoxide with bis (O, O-diisobutylthiophosphoryl) disulfide (the isobutyl disulfide) consisted of a radical decomposition at the initial stage and an ionic decomposition at the later stage. After the complete decomposition of t-butyl hydroperoxide with the isobutyl disulfide, the reaction solution was separated into several components, and some of components derived from the isobutyl disulfide was identified and used for decomposition of t-butyl hydroperoxide as catalyst. It was found that sulfuric acid was most effective for the ionic decomposition. The formation mechanism of sulfuric acid was also proposed.