From the result of previous study authors found that suitable amount of oily matter on the particle surface is a necessary factor for the standard carbon black and that the difference of raw material's quality or preparing method is not important factors. Considering this result, authors prepared a simple combustion furnace of lampblack method type. Preparation of the carbon black with ample amount of oily matter and uniformity on the quality was always successful when naphthalene was burned at 400500°C in this furnace by the adjustment of ventilator. The prepared carbon black was extracted with acetone for 40 hours to adjust the amount of oily matter on the particle surface, and then it was compared with the Tamagawa C carbon. The characteristics of the prepared carbon black were superior than Tamagawa's in the following points; 1. The diameter of the primary particle size was smaller. 2. The deviation of particle size was less. 3. The amount of oily matter was more. 4. The quality of soiled cloths was more uniform. 5. The difference in detersive efficiency between washing in water and washing in soap solution appeared nearly the same as that of Tamagawa's in the case of soiling by machine, but appeared much more in the case of soiling by hands.
As a result of many trials, authors found that the X-ray diffraction patterns of above mentioned matters could be successfully measured by grinding with about same amount of liquid paraffin. Suitability of this method was proved by Na2SO4·10H2O and authors proposed a new X-ray diffraction pattern of K4P2O7, which has not been ascertained yet. The X-ray diffraction patterns of 95% ethanol-insoluble matters of liquid detergents which contain K4P2O7, are usually in discord with the spectrum of K4P1O7. The observation of this fact indicates the formation of the solid solution between K4P2O7 and Na4P2O7, which is formed by the partial substitution of K+ of K4P2O7 for Na+ of anionic surfactants. In addition, it was found that the approximate value of K/Na ratio can be estimated from the shift of diffraction angle (2θ=3033°).
Some higher hydroxamic acids and their acetyl derivatives were prepared from methyl esters of various fatty acids, and cotton clothes were treated with aqueous dispersion or solution of these reactive surfactants. Authors found that acetylated hydroxamic acids except that from perfluoro fatty acid easily reacted with cotton in the presence of alkali such as Na2CO3 and that the cotton treated with homologues higher than C16 showed durable water-repellency and excellent softness. It seemed that the inactivity of perfluoro dihydroxamate was due to the difficulty of its Lossen rearrangement.
Metal salts of new type amphoteric surface active agents were incorporated into sheets, inflation films and monofilaments of polypropylene by extruding and other molding methods. Antistatic and dyeing properties of these polypropylene were studied. Metal salts of amphoteric surface active agents did not bleed out on the surface of the molded polypropylene and these metal salts had the excellent property as internal antistatic agents for polypropylene. The antistatic property of sheets and films was diminished by washing, but soon recovered to the original. Blank polypropylene showed (-) ζ-potential at pH 2-12, but the isoelectric point was observed at pH 6.5-7.5 by incorporated with metal salts of amphoteric surface active agents. Dyeability of polypropylene incorporating the metal salts increased in the acidic dyeing. The dyed polypropylene had high resistance to light, rubbing and washing.
The open capillary melting point has been adopted as a characteristic value of fats and waxes in some standards of testing materials such as A.O.C.S. Official Methods, JIS and J.P. In these standards some disagreements are found concerning the practical procedures of measurement and the sort of materials applicable. The authors studied the procedures and its applicability from the stand point of repeatability of the measurement. The materials used were hydrogenated tallow, hydrogenated castor oil, mink fat, cetanol, hydrogenated spermaceti, bees wax, candelilla wax, bleached montan wax, paraffin wax and ceresin. The repeatability has been determined from five replicated measurements with five capillaries and expressed as standard deviation. Under carefully controlled measuring conditions, it was observed that the repeatability depends primarily upon complexity of the chemical nature of the samples. It is quite conceivable that the open capillary melting point is applicable to rather limited sorts of materials when the repeatability of the measurement must be in the range of ±1°C.
The characteristics of the lipids of Okadangomushi and its components concerned with fatty acids and unsaponifiable matters were studied. The general characteristics of the ether-extracts were as follows : d420 0.9466, n20D 1.4739, S.V. 230.1, I.N. 78.1, unsaponifiable matters 10.0%, acetone-insoluble parts 5.0%. The fatty acids obtained by means of saponification of acetonsoluble parts of the ether-extracts were composed of the following constituents; C14F0 acid 0.7%, C16F0 acid 20.6%, C18F0 acid 8.3%, C20F0 acid 0.7%, C18F1 acid 53.7%, C18F2 acid 10.1%, C18F3 acid 2.5%, other unsaturated acids 3.2%. The unsaponifiable matters were yellowish brown solid under normal temperature containing 41.0% sterols. The sterol purified by means of silica gel column chromatography in the state of acetate had the following characteristics; mp 144.3°C, mp of the acetate 114.5°C, S.V. of the acetate 128.5, and this was considered as cholesterol by the UV- and IR-absorption spectrum onto these characteristics.