油化学
Online ISSN : 1884-2003
ISSN-L : 0513-398X
43 巻 , 7 号
選択された号の論文の9件中1~9を表示しています
  • 増田 光輝, 小竹 比呂志, 三浦 千明, 大場 健吉
    1994 年 43 巻 7 号 p. 551-555
    発行日: 1994/07/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    α-SFMeの水生生物と活性汚泥に及ぼす影響について検討した。水生生物としてヒメダカ (Oryzias latipes) を用い, JIS K 0102 “工場排水試験方法” にしたがって96 h LC50値 (96h半数致死濃度) を求めた。α-SFMeはC12, 14, 16の各単鎖アルキルおよびC14/C16混合物 (C14/C16 : 30/70) を用いた。その結果, 単鎖α-SFMeの場合アルキル鎖長と魚毒性に相関性が認められ, C16, C14およびC12-α-SFMeの各96hLC50値は1.3, 24および298mg/Lであり, 短鎖の方が毒性は弱かった。C14/C16混合α-SFMeのLC50値は2.4mg/Lであり, LASやAOSと同程度であった。また, 生分解過程における魚毒性の変化についてC14/C16混合α-SFMeを用いて検討した結果, α-SFMeは生分解が始まると急激に魚毒性が低下した。
    活性汚泥に及ぼす影響については, 家庭排水に含まれて流入するα-SFMeが下水処理場活性汚泥の下水処理能力 (酸化分解) に与える影響を検討した。MITI testにより, モデル基質 (グルコース, アミノ酸混合物) の生分解 (酸素消費量) を指標として検討した結果, 高濃度のC14/C16混合α-SFMe (50mg/L) を添加しても活性汚泥の酸化分解能に影響はなかった。また, 余剰汚泥が嫌気消化を受ける際, 汚泥に吸着残留したα-SFMeによる影響についても検討した結果, 高濃度 (12mg/g乾燥汚泥) のC14/C16混合α-SFMeを加えても嫌気消化において発生するガスの量, 組成に変化は認められなかった。
  • 松嶋 健兒, 池田 功, 河本 恵司, 中辻 洋司, 岡原 光男
    1994 年 43 巻 7 号 p. 556-561
    発行日: 1994/07/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    アミド型ビスクラウンエーテル3及び4を, アミノメチルクラウンエーテル1及びモルホリノクラウンエーテル2とアルキルマロニルジクロリドから合成した。さらに, アミノ型ビスクラウンエーテル5と6をアミド3と4の還元によって合成した。2個の15-クラウン-5環を持つアミド型リガンド3は, 錯安定度定数及び液膜輸送両方において, ナトリウムイオンに比べてカリウムイオンに対し高い選択性を示した。もう一つのアミドリガンド4及びアミンリガンド5と6は3に比べて選択性は劣った。これらのクラウンエーテルの分子構造と錯化能及び輸送能の関係を議論した。
  • 越智 知子, 大塚 洋子, 青山 稔, 丸山 武紀, 新谷 〓
    1994 年 43 巻 7 号 p. 562-566
    発行日: 1994/07/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The synergistic antioxidant effects of L-proline (Pro), L-methionine (Met), L-lysine (Lys), L-histidine (His) or L-tryptophan (Trp) with a mixed tocopherol concentrate (m-Toc) in cookies were studied by a storage test at 40°C for 12 months after baking. Cookie stability toward oxidative deterioration was evaluated based on changes in peroxide value (POV) of the lipid fraction and the residue amount of added amino acid and tocopherol (Toc).
    1) The time course of POV for the control sample without amino acid and/or m-Toc indicated a clear induction period (IP) and IP was prolonged by the addition of any amino acid.
    2) Pro most effectively enhanced the antioxidant effect of m-Toc in cookies, followed by Met>Trp>Lys>His.
    3) During storage for 12 months, protective effects of amino acid on Toc were noted. When Pro and m-Toc were added together, the residue amount of Toc was higher than with other amino acids, and the residue amount of Pro was highest for any amino acid.
  • 佐々木 一郎, 鈴木 正, 石井 文由, 緒方 宏泰
    1994 年 43 巻 7 号 p. 567-573
    発行日: 1994/07/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Sterically stabilized liposomes were produced by incorporation a poly (oxyethylene) poly (oxypropylene) block copolymer (Pluronic F-68) into the lipid bilayer using a high-pressure homogenizer. Mean vesicle size of liposomes incorporating Pluronic F-68 greatly decreased from 480 nm to 110 nm with minor change in marker entrapment after passing three times through the high-pressure homogenizer. Liposomes stabilized with Pluronic F-68 were characterized with respect to entrapment efficiency, vesicle size and surface charge. Entrapment efficiency of a marker increased with Pluronic F-68 content, and was maximum at 0.13 (% wt/vol) -Pluronic F-68. In particle size and surface charge, no change was noted with increase in Pluronic F-68 content. Surface charge decreased slightly for liposomes incorporating Pluronic F-68, compared to those coated with Pluronic F-68. Pluronic F-68 is thus distributed between the bilayer and/ or inner phase of liposomes as well as the liposome surface. Liposomes stabilized with Pluronic F-68 were significantly stable in calcium and fetal bovine serum (FBS) solution at 37°C compared with Pluronic F-68-free liposomes. The incorporation of Pluronic F-68 into the bilayer caused significant increase in 31P-NMR line width. Pluronic F-68 is thus shown to stabilize liposomes by restricting phospholipid motion in the bilayer.
  • 野村 正人, 藤原 義人
    1994 年 43 巻 7 号 p. 574-578
    発行日: 1994/07/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    For the effective utilization of compounds obtained from nature, we synthesized derivatives considered to possibly have physiological activity, using 6- [(8 Z, 11 Z) -8, 11, 14-pentadecatrienyl] salicylic acid (1) from cashew nut shell oil as the starting material. Eight derivatives were obtained via acetylation, methylation and/or oxidation of (1). They were examined for capacity to inhibit tyrosinase and found to inhibit its activity more than (1).
  • 平田 芳明, 関口 礼司, 斎藤 実, 久保田 紘二, 鹿山 光
    1994 年 43 巻 7 号 p. 579-582
    発行日: 1994/07/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Lipids extracted from three pine seeds, Pinus koraiensis, Pinus armandi and Pinus cembra, were studied for general properties, fatty acid, sterol, phospholipids, and tocopherol content and autoxidation by the AOM test.
    All the lipids contained 14.718.6 % of Δ cis-5, cis-9, cis-12-octadecatrienoic acid (Δ 5, 9, 12-18 : 3 and designated here tentatively as pinolenic acid). The content of this acid in polar lipids was considerably less than in neutral lipids. The content of pinolenic acid in 2-monoacylglycerol was very low (1.22.6 %) and was thus considered distributed mainly at the 1, 3-position.
    Sterol composition consisted of three sterols, sitosterol, Δ 5-avenasterol and campesterol. Total sterol content of lipid extracted from P. armandi seeds was higher than that in the other two species.
    Phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) were present as the major phospholipids.
    Total tocopherol content in pine seed lipids was less than in vegetable oils having high iodine value such as soybean oil and safflower oil. Oxidative stability by the AOM test was essentially the same as that of the above vegetable oils.
  • 司 英隆
    1994 年 43 巻 7 号 p. 583-585
    発行日: 1994/07/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    3-Methyl-2- (2-propeny1) -2-cyclopentenone (Allylrethrone, 1) is an important component of an insecticidal pyrethroid and an intermediate for the synthesis of pyrethrins.
    The procedure for the synthesis of (1) from methyl 3-formyl propionate (2) is shown in Scheme-1.
    Keto ester (4), prepared from (2) and 2-methyl-2-vinyl-1, 3-dioxolane (3) by radical addition reaction in 76 % yield, was treated with ethylene glycol to give diacetal (5) in 72 % yield. Reduction of (5) with sodium bis (2-methoxyethoxy) aluminium hydride in benzene gave diacetal alcohol (6) in 95 % yield, which was oxidized to diacetal aldehyde (7) with pyridinium chlorochromate in 66 % yield.
    Diacetal aldehyde (7) was reacted with the ylid prepared form methyltriphenylphosphonium iodide to give (8) in 91 % yield, which was hydrolyzed with hydrochloric acid to afford diketone (9) in 95 % yield. The base-catalized cyclization of (9) gave (1) in 92 % yield.
  • 竹下 安日児, 米山 智, 田辺 智志, 三木 繁久, 荒川 彰子, 飯村 和夫, 鹿間 達雄, 清水 義徳, 鈴木 修武, 田中 章夫, ...
    1994 年 43 巻 7 号 p. 586-593
    発行日: 1994/07/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 阿部 芳郎
    1994 年 43 巻 7 号 p. 594-599
    発行日: 1994/07/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
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