油化学
Online ISSN : 1884-2003
ISSN-L : 0513-398X
43 巻 , 6 号
選択された号の論文の10件中1~10を表示しています
  • 加藤 明良
    1994 年 43 巻 6 号 p. 459-469
    発行日: 1994/06/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Numerous eukaryotic cellular and viral proteins can be modified by the covalent attachment of fatty acyl groups. Protein acylation is classified into three types, viz., N-myristoylation, thioester (or ester) -linked acylation, and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked acylation. ProteinN-myristoylation involves the co-translational attachment of myristic acid (tetradecanoic acid, C14 : 0) to N-terminal glycine residues of various proteins. Myristoyl-CoA : proteinN-myristoyltransferase (NMT) is the enzyme by which the myristoyl group is transferred from myristoyl-CoA thioester toN-terminal glycine residues of nascent acylproteins.
    With consideration to the above, the syntheses of long-chain fatty acid analogs, especially myristic acid analogs, containing oxygen, sulfur, double bonds, triple bonds, aromatic residue, carbonyl, ester, and amide are reviewed. The structure-NMT activity relationship is also eluci-dated by using myristic acid analogs, N-terminal glycine-attached octapeptides, and Saccharomyces cervisiae NMT in vitro. The inhibition of the replication of human immunodeficiency virus-1 by these myristic analogs is briefly discussed.
  • ディミチ レヴェント, 和田 俊
    1994 年 43 巻 6 号 p. 470-478
    発行日: 1994/06/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    かつお節製造における節の脂質変化及び市販かつお節の品質に及ぼす脂質の影響について検討した。裸節脂質のトリアシルグリセリン (TG) の組成比は原料の 75.2%から68.3%に減少し, かび付け処理後, TGはさらに25.4%になったのに対し, 遊離脂肪酸 (FFA) は 53%に増えた。これはかびからのリパーゼによる TG の加水分解と考えられ, また, ドコサヘキサエン酸 (DHA) の組成比も FFA の増加に伴って増えた。これらのことから, FFA組成比 (7.1%) とDHAの組成比 (19.1%) がともに低い市販品かつお節はかび付け処理がうまく行われていなかったと判断された。ばい (焙) 乾処理後, ホスファチジルエタノールアミンは 22.5% から6.6%に減少し, ホスファチジルコリンはほとんど変化しなかった。このようにかつお節の脂質分析でその製品の品質評価及び加工処理の適切さを推察した。
  • 矢上 一夫, 出口 路子, 村上 薫
    1994 年 43 巻 6 号 p. 479-483
    発行日: 1994/06/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Addition of the dodecanthiol cotelomer of vinyl pyrrolidone and methylacrylate (Ls-VPr-MA) to soap or a synthetic detergent as a builder gives rise to excellent detergency, particularly when high hardeness washing water is used. To determine the reasons for this, surface tension, permeability and chelating ability for aqueous solutions of sodium oleate, LAS (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate), Ls-VPr-MA telomer and an equimolar mixture of sodium oleate (or LAS) and telomer were measured.
    The surface tention of the equimolar mixture was less than that of a solution only of sodium oleate or telomer. The order of cmc was telomer<equimolar mixture<sodium oleate. Permeability of the surfactant solution to linen fabric was highest for an aqueous solution of the equimolar mixture. Chelating ability was high for an equimolar mixture of LAS and telomer due to formation of a complex with high interfacial activity.
    The present results may serve as the basis for methods to increase detergency by adding telomer to soap or a synthetic detergent.
  • 高岡 京, 高砂子 昌久, 小林 光一, 多留 康矩
    1994 年 43 巻 6 号 p. 484-489
    発行日: 1994/06/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Thermal oxidation of thin films of trilinoleoylglycerol (TLG) under air was investigated by termogravimetric analysis (TGA). Hydroperoxidative products of TLG film formed by thermal oxidation with TGA under air were converted to polymerization products quantitatively, during vacuum thermogravimetric analysis (VTGA).
    The following results were obtained :
    1) Weight percent of hydroperoxidative products of TLG film (17 μm : thickness of film) obtained by programed heating under air was 1.04 wt %/°C and 80°C to 128°C. For film thickness of 85 μm, this parameter was 0.88 wt %/°C at 60°C to 120°C and 0.49 wt %/°C at 120°C to 145°C.
    2) The relationship between TLG film thickness (17 μ m to 310 μm) and hydroperoxidative products (wt %) for maximum TLG film weight achieved by programed heating under air could be expressed quantitatively as 0.056 wt %/ μm. For less than 17 μm of thin films of TLG, hydroperoxidative product amounts greatly increased.
    3) The initial logarithmic rate of the thermal oxidation of TLG film was proportional to the reciprocal of absolute temperature of the reaction. From Arrhenius plots apparent activation en ergy (ΔE ) of the TLG film (17 μm) oxidation was 8 kcal/mol and ΔE of the TLG film (85μ m) oxidation, 6 kcal/mol.
    4) Qualitative assignment of thermal oxidative polymerization products was made at 100 and 200°C for 4 min, using thermograms of VTGA. The first peak corresponded to the dimer and its oxidation products and the second and third peaks, to the trimer and its oxidation products.
  • 今野 紀二郎, 森田 健司, 永沢 裕之, 河合 武司
    1994 年 43 巻 6 号 p. 490-494
    発行日: 1994/06/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The dependence of limiting amounts of solubilized water on the concentrations of dodecyl tetra-, penta-, hexa-, and octaethylene glycol ethers (C12E4, C12E5, C12E 6, and C12E8) in cyclohexane was measured by Karl-Fisher titration at 25°C. Using 1H-NMR, fluorescence, and near infrared spectroscopic techniques, the states of water in solubilization regions except for C12E4 were examined as a function of Rw (= [H2O] / [surfactant]) at various surfactant concentrations. Two types of water were found present at various proportions in the interior of reversed micelles, i.e. waters is bound directly to oxyethylene groups of surfactants, and the succeeded water is held together with the hydrated oxyethylene groups by hydrogen bonds. Both were related to the formation of reversed and swollen micelles. Minimum Rw required for micelle formation was determined.
  • 杉田 陸海, 水野 間智子, 早田 知恵子, 堀 太郎, 仲谷 文貴, 青木 一弘
    1994 年 43 巻 6 号 p. 495-501
    発行日: 1994/06/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Neutral glycosphingolipids of the arthro-series were isolated from the porcine roundworm, Ascaris suum, Class Nematoda, Phylum Aschelminthes, Oligosaccharide structures of the glycolipids were completely characterized as Glc β1-Cer (CMS1 and CMS2), Man β1-4 Glc β1-Cer (CDS), GlcNAc β1-3 Man β1-4 Glc β1-Cer (CTS), GalNAc β1-4 GlcNAc β1-3 Man β1-4 Glc β1-Cer (CQS) and Gal α 1-3 GalNAc β1-4 GlcNAc β1-3 Man β1-4 Glc β1-Cer (CPS) by compositional analysis, methylation analysis, exoglycosidase hydrolysis, acid hydrolysis, chromium trioxide oxidation and TLC-immunostaining.
    The fatty acid and sphingoid compositions of CMS1, CDS, CTS, CQS and CPS were virtually the same, with those of 2-hydroxy C24 : 0-acid and branched heptadecasphingosine and heptadeca-4-sphingenine predominating. There would thus appear to be a comman metabolic pathway for CMS1 to CPS. However, CMS2 differed completely from the sphingoid components of other glycolipids with trihydroxy bases. Thin-layer chromatography and the results of sugar analysis indicated the presence of at least four minor glycolipids possessing large oligosaccharide chains each with six, seven sugars.
  • 武藤 正和, 内藤 昇, 國枝 博信
    1994 年 43 巻 6 号 p. 502-509
    発行日: 1994/06/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The phase behavior and HLB (three-phase) temperature of commercial poly (oxyethylene) nonionic surfactant were studied.
    HLB temperature of polydisperse poly (oxyethylene) nonionic surfactants shifted toward higher temperature with decreasing surfactant concentration and/or water/oil ratio due to differences in monodisperse solubilities (Si) of the surfactant in the excess oil phase. The relation between Si and surfactant composition in the surfactant phase (Sis) at the water-oil interface (within) the surfactant phase (middle-phase microemulsion) was determined based on the geo-metrical relation in phase equilibria.
    Si of the hydrophilic surfactant increased with temperature but decreased for the hydrophobic surfactant. Most commercial surfactants contain non-reactive alcohol and the distribution of hydrophilic chains is quite broad. Total monodisperse solubilities in oil (ΣSi) is thus quite large and HLB temperature changes considerably with surfactant concentration or water/oil ratio.
    For a long hydrocarbon-chain surfactant system, electrical conductivity is usuful for detecting HLB temperature applicable to phase study.
  • 趙 振東, 松原 義治, 野副 鉄男
    1994 年 43 巻 6 号 p. 510-514
    発行日: 1994/06/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    7-イソプロピル-4-メチル-1-アズレンメタノール (1) が非常に高い反応性を持つ性質を利用して, 硫酸存在下で1とエタノールとを反応させると, 1-エトキシメチル-7-イソプロピル-4-メチルアズレン (2) が簡便にかつ好収率で得られた。副生成物としては, 1-エトキシメチル-7-イソプロピル-3- (7-イソプロピル-4-メチル-1-アズレニルメチル) -4-メチルアズレン (2B1); 1-エトキシメチル-7-イソプロピル-3- [7-イソプロピル-3- (7-イソプロピル-4-メチル-1-アズレニルメチル) -4-メチル-1-アズレニルメチル] -4-メチルァズレン (2 B2) などのエーテル化合物も, ビス (7-イソプロピル-4-メチル-1-アズレニル) メタン (1 A1);7-イソプロピル-1, 3-ビス (7-イソプロピル-4-メチル-1-アズレニルメチル) -4-メチルアズレン (1 A2) 及びグアイアズレン四量体 (1 A3) (1 A31 と1 A32) などの炭化水素化合物も 2 と共に得られた。これらの生成物は, シリカゲルカラムクロマトグラフィーを用いて分離, 精製してから, 電子スペクトル, 質量スペクトル, 赤外スペクトル及び1H-NMR スペクトルを測定し, それらの解析結果から構造を決定した。
  • 瀬川 丈史, 原 節子, 戸谷 洋一郎
    1994 年 43 巻 6 号 p. 515-519
    発行日: 1994/06/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The antioxidative and synergistic effects of glycerophospholipids (PL) such as phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidil-inositol (PI) were investigated using fish oil as a substrate at 30°C in the dark.
    PC was noted to express antioxidative effect, PE strong synergistic effect, PG proxidative effect and PI to have no effect at all. During autoxidation, mixed tocopherols added to the substrate were consumed in the order, α-, γ-δ-isomers, with or without PL. After the α-isomer disappeared, the γ-isomer started to be consumed, and then the δ-isomer. The remaining time of each tocopherol isomer in the PC or PE-containing substrate was prolonged 1.5 or 3 times that of the control group, respectively.
    The consumption rate of each tocopherol isomer was considered less in the substrate with PL than that of the control group because nitrogen-containing PL molecules, especially PE, easily release a hydrogen radical from the amino group to regenerate the corresponding tocopherol from tocopheryl radicals.
  • 蒲 康夫, 川端 康之, 日下部 功
    1994 年 43 巻 6 号 p. 520-523
    発行日: 1994/06/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    O-メシチレンスルホニルヒドロキシルアミンはトルエン中でメチル2, 3, 4, 6-テトラ-O-ベンジル-1-チオ-β-D-グルコシドを効率よく活性化し, 各種のアルコールと反応して対応するグルコシドを収率よく与えた。
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