In this paper, especially interesting coating resin technologies which have been recently researched and developed in the field of coating industry were introduced as follows : (1) The new polymers acrylic oligomers having terminated functional groups, mono disperse polyester oligomers and acrylic oligomers, liquid crystalline polymers, pigment dispersant, fluororesins having hydroxyl groups, new isocyanate polymers, new graft polymers, new block polymers, volume expandable polymers (2) The composite systems IPNs, polymer microsphere (3) The new crosslinking systems cyclocarbonate, new acrylic urethane, cyclic urea, oxazolidine, methyl acrylamide glycolate methyl ether, acetoacetoxyethyl methacrylate, acrylic silicone, epoxy/silanol/hydroxyl composite system, carboxylic acid/epoxy system
In this study, attention was directed to the theoretical aspects of the resolution of lipid molecular species containing unsaturated fatty acids on reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The chemical potential of a lipid molecule in the chromatographic system was influenced by the sum of dipole, induction, and dispersion effects of van der Waals forces, among lipid molecules, mobils phase, and stationary phase. Even in reverse phase HPLC, dipole effect was concluded to exert the greatest effect. Thus when polar domains such as double bonds are situated far away from each other, dipole moment may be large compared to that when they are near each other. Accordingly, the former which has greater affinity toward the polar mobile phase should elute earlier than the latter. Analytical data on relative retention time of molelcular species of diacyl glycerolipid on reverse phase HPLC confirmed this to actually the case.
A study was made of the soiling process of solid particles on the fiber substrate in relation t o detergency. The authors applied theoretical treatment of equilibrium to a soiling system (solid particle/fiber/dispersion medium) assumed comparable to dyeing equilibria. Proposed in this paper is a pseudo-equilibrium system involving the adhesion and desorption of particulate Fe2O3 soil to five different textile substrates (cotton, diacetate, nylon-6, polyester, polypropyrene) in various media (H2O, EtOH, 1-BuOH, n-Hexane, CCl4) under weak mechanical oscillation to prevent the deposition of Fe2O3 in the dispersion medium. Under the conditions used a Freundlich type adhesion isotherm was obtained and adhesion isotherms at different temperatures were found to be exothermic. Empirical formulae for estimating the relative affinity parameter of Fe2O3 to the fiber substrate in this system are proposed.
A pseudo-equilibrium state was previously proposed in which a Fe2O3/fiber/dispersion medium system was comparable to a soiling system in detergency. In this study, hydrophobic ferric oxinate [iron tri (8-quinolinolate); Fe-Ox] was prepared, and adhesion-desorption was studied in a Fe-Ox/fiber/dispersion medium system during weak mechanical oscillation as in the previous paper. A typical Freundlich isotherm was also obtained in the Fe-Ox system as the Fe2O3 system. Affinity parameter values at various fiber substrates were of the following order. For the Fe-Ox/H2O system; polypropylene > polyester > nylon-6 (A) > nylon-6 (B) > diacetate > cotton. For the Fe-Ox/CCl4 system; cotton > diacetae >nylon-6 (B) > nylon-6 (A) > polypropylene>polyester. These values in hydrophilic and hydrophobic media were the reverse of those in soil deposition. The present results obtained in the model system appear applicable to the soiling system in detergency.
A study was made of the mechanism for the phosphorylation of alcohol (ROH) with highly concentrated phosphoric acid (105% phosphoric acid). 17O-NMR analysis of monooctyl phosphate (C8-MAP), obtained by reaction of 17O labeled octyl alcohol (C8-R17OH) with 105% phosphoric acid, indicated the 17O of (C8-R17OH) to be incorporated in the bond of R-O-P of MAP (Fig.-1, Table-1). The mechanism for the reaction of ROH with 105% phosphoric acid is thus not nucleophilic substitution on α-carbon of ROH with phosphoric acid (Scheme-1 B), but nucleophilic substitution on phosphoryl P atom with oxygen of ROH (Scheme-1 A). The results of FAB (Pos.) -MS spectroscopic analysis of a reaction mixture of 18O labeled n-octyl alcohol (C8-R18OH) with 105% phosphoric acid also support this mechanism (Table-2).
All positional isomers of methyl α-D-glucopyranoside mono-laurates were selectively prepared. The position of the acyl-chain of each mono-laurate isomer was confirmed by means of 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The surface tension of aqueous solutions of mono-laurates was measured at 25°C. From surface tension isotherms, the efficiency of surface tension reduction, surface excess concentration, area per molecule in the surface layer, and standard free energy of adsorption were determined. The efficiency of surface tension reduction (pC20), defined as-log Cπ=20, decreased in the order 6->4-_??_ 2->3-laurate. The order of decrease in minimum surface area per molecule (A) was 4-_??_6->2-_??_3-laurate. The standard free energy of adsorption (-Δ G) decreased in the order 6->4-_??_2->3-laurate. The influence of the orientation of pyranoide ring on surface area per molecule and standard free energy of adsorption are discussed based on these results.