The practical frying test was carried out in a automatic test fryer of indirect heating system using Kanechlor (chlorinated biphenyl) arranged on the basis of the model examination by the continuous water-spraying and heating system, and the effect of protection of fat surface was examined using soybean oil and pieces of raw potato as frying materials (Fig.-1, 2, Table-1). In order to get good reproducibility, the conditions introducing the frying materials, the temperature of fat entering into the cooker, the rate of fat circulation and frying time were strictly controlled. As shown in Fig.35, Table-2, it was observed that the thermal oxidative deterioration was prevented effectively by means of metal float or hood, but the hydrolytic deterioration was not prevented. Colour development and lowering of fat stability to autoxidation resulted from hydrolytic deterioration. These tendencies were essentially the same as that of the model examination. However, the increase of acid value was very slow in comparison with the model examination. When soybean oil of high acid value (about 2.0) was examined, the acid value increased considerably in a rapid rate in either cases with protection or without protection (Fig.-6). From this result, in order to get good frying quality, some measure to prevent the hydrolysis of fat should be taken in addition to the protection of fat surface. As a measure of protecting fat hydrolysis, the effect of cyclopropenoid fatty acid was examined (Fig.-7). By the addition to soybean oil, of 10% of refined kapok seed oil which contains 11.4% of cyclopropenoid fatty acid, a good stability against hydrolysis was observed with light colour development and good stability to autoxidation. Accordingly, when the fat surface in the fryer is protected by means of metal float or hood, and in addition the means to prevent fat hydrolysis are provided, the both of thermal oxidative and hydrolytic deteriorations are practically prevented, and good frying quality will be thus maintained during deep fat frying.
The viscosity of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate solution and the effect of inorganic electrolytess were investigated. Linearity between the logarithm of the viscosity and concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate until 25%, was observed. The viscosity of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate lowered when small amount of inorganic electrolytes were added, but increased when large amount of them were added. The viscosity was also affected by ionic valence of anion of inorganic electrolyte.
The mixture of ethylene oxide and strong basic anion exchange resins of hydroxide form was warmed with shaking in a sealed tube at 4045°C for several hours. Ethylene oxide was converted to polyethylene glycols, of which the average molecular weight was about 100500. Five grams of resins (20% moisture content) with various amount of hydroxyl were added to each of 30 ml of ethylene oxide, and reacted at 45°C for 6 hours. The mole ratios of hydroxyl group to the ethylene oxide employed were 0.0, 0.25, 0.43, 0.83 and 1.33%, which gave conversion ratios of ethylene oxide for 0.0, 37.9, 45.5, 90.9 and 100%, respectively. On the other hand, resins of hydroxide form with different moisture contents, like 6.0, 3.3, 2.5 and 0.5 g, gave different conversion ratios, 15.2, 39.8, 79.4 and 83.3% at 45°C for 2 hours, and various average molecular weights, 100, 150, 200 and 400, respectively.
Phase diagrams of ternary systems consisting of polyoxyethylene nonylphenyl ether (NP-n) which has the different degree of polymerization of ethylene oxide, n, nonylphenol (NP-0) and water were studied. The phase diagrams of ternary NP-10NP-0H2O systems resembled to those of binary NP-nH2O systems, in which n equals to the calculated average degree of polymerization of ethylene oxide in the mixture of NP-10 and NP-0. In the case of 25 ≥ n ≥ 15, the ternary systems showed phase diagrams a little different to that of binary systems, since the region III which contained the unsolubilized NP-0 phase appeared and enlarged its area rapidly with increasing concentration of NP-0, but they exhibited unusual zone owing to the discontinuity of cloud point (CP) curve which resulted from the enlargement of the dispersed system region RTP1. In the ternary system of n ≤ 30, of which binary aqueous system exhibited at least one hardening or dispersed system region, the region of hardening or dispersed system changed with the increasing concentration of NP-0 according to the following order : RHP3 → RTP2 (RHP2) → RTP1. Ternary system containing NP-50, which exhibited no hardening region in the binary system, exhibited neither region RHP3 nor region RTP2 (RHP2), but the region RTP1 together with the heterogeneous region I above CP curve appeared initially and then the region III appeared and increased so rapidly that the region RTP1 contracted with increasing concentration of NP-0 and therefore there was found no unusual zone. In the ternary system of PEG 2000, which contained no lipophilic group in the molecule, the dispersed system and hardening region could not be found, but only the region III appeared.