The time to reach POV 100 in the AOM test of pollack liver oil was prolonged from 4 to 86 h by the addition of each 0.1% of ethoxyquin and egg lecithin. Tri-n-butyl phosphate, oleyl hydrogen phosphate and oleylamine did not show the synergistic effect. Choline, N, N-dimethyl-n-dodecylamine and dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride showed the excellent synergistic effect. These facts showed that the synergist effect of lecithin was attributed to the action of the amine part. The ethoxyquin-choline or dimethyldodecylamine was found to have also the high antioxidant acitivity for linseed oil, but not to have the activity for corn oil and soybean oil.
Four chelating agents ((I) (IV)) were obtained on condensation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with four secondary amines (dipropyl- (I), dibutyl- (II), dipentyl- (III), dihexylamine (IV)). Surface activities of the chelate solution were investigated. All of metal chelates prepared from (I) and (II), and aluminium-, cobalt-, nickel- and zinc chelates from (III) were soluble in water, but the other chelates insoluble. Surface and interfacial tensions of the aqueous solution of the chelates decreased with an increase in alkyl chain length of the chelates. Dispersing power of the chelates for TiO2/toluene-butanol (1 : 1) system increased with a decrease in the alkyl chain length. The sodium salts of (II), (III), and (IV) showed good surface activities, especially when emulsified in kerosene or when wetted on a canvas substrate.
A series of 1-poly (oxyethylene) pyridinium-2-dodecanoylimines (3) were synthesized in a good yield from 2-aminopyridine and poly (oxyethylene) (POE) monochlorides ranging in oxyethylene number (n) from 1 to 5. Some properties of (3) were examined and compared with those of 1-methylpyridinium-2-octanoylimine (4) and dodecyl POE ethers (5). (3) with n≤3 were more soluble in water than (4) and their specific cloud point increased with increasing the number of n. The surface tension reduction of (3) was similar to that of (4). The cmc value of (3) was about one-hundredth of that of (4) but similar to that of (5). From the relationship of (Fig.-1) between cloud point and n of (3) and (5), it was estimated that the hydrophilic effect of the pyridinium-2-imine group in (3) corresponded to that of two or three oxyethylene units in (5). On the basis of IR spectra and the aqueous properties of (3), it was concluded that the contribution of the dipolar ionic form of (3) was strong especially in an aqueous environment.
Some proteins which construct human hair were solubilized in aqueous solutioons of surfactants generally applied for shampoos. 1) The aqueous solution of sodium dodecylpoly (oxyethylene) sulfate solubilized smaller amounts of proteins from the hair than that of other surfactants used in this experiment. 2) The amount of solubilized proteins had the relationship with the degree of damage in hair. The higher damaged hair gave larger amounts of solubilized proteins. 3) Solubilization of proteins was influenced with pH of the solution. The minimum amount of solubilized proteins was obtained at pH 56 corresponding to the isoelectric point of human hair. 4) The hair of which proteins was extracted with an aqueous solution of the surfactant had poor water holding capacity and gave much splitted hair caused by combing. These facts have provided valuable imformation on the effect of surfactants on human hair.
A number of telomer-type surfactants containing various functional groups were synthesized. These surfactants formed the insoluble metal complexes with various metal ions in an aqueous solution. In this paper, these telomer-type surfactants were used as the coagulants having the properties to suppress Cd2+ elution from Cd-contaminated soil and the properties were compared to those of other coagulants. In the qualitative precipitate test of telomer-type surfactants with Cd2+, Ca2+, and Fe3+ at a low pH solution, only Cd2+ was precipitated on addition of Lo11.4 HD94 containing hydrazino group at pH 35, The telomer-typ surfactants were more ineffective than others for formation of insoluble Cd complexes in an aqueous selution, however Lo10.3 HD100 as well as DDC was quite effective for coagulation of Cd2+ in Cd-contaminated kaolin. The coagulation effect of Cd2+ was little when commercial soil coditioners or commercial flocculants were used. Lo10.3 HD100 was more stable to light and temperature than DDC, therefore, Lo10.3 HD100 is considered to be the best coagulant.
Bleaching agents (perborates, percarbonates, and hypochlorites) in detergents were determined automatically by the use of Auto-Analyzer. The proposed method is based on the reaction of 4-amino-antipyrine with phenol in the presence of oxidizing agents. The enzyme, a horseradish peroxidase, was used as a catalyst for the determination of oxygen releasing compounds (perborates and percarbonates). In the case of hypochlorites, the enzyme is unnecessary. A sample solution was introduced automatically into the stream of the reductants solution and then the absorbance of the formed indophenolic dye was monitored at 505 nm. In this method, a large amount of EDTA did not interfere the determination and the resulting calibration curves were completely linear. Sodium perborate or sodium percarbonate in a standard detergent was determined by this method. The results were satisfactory. The sampling rate was 5070 samples/h.