The catalytic addition reaction of acrylic acid to safflower fatty acids by a flow method was in-vestigated. It was found that the catalyst having phosphoric acid deposited on the synthetic silica-alumina composed of 70% of SiO2 and 29% of Al2O3 has high catalytic activity for the addition reaction of acrylic acid to safflower fatty acids by continuously passing a mixture of acrylic acid and the fatty acids. The major product separated by column chromatography was analyzed by IR, NMR, and MS spec-trometry and found to be a 1 : 1 adduct of the fatty acids and acrylic acid and to have a cyclohexene ring structure.Moreover, it was suggested that the adduct was formed by the Diels-Alder addition reaction of acrylic acid to the conjugated octadecadienoic acid. It was also observed that the minor adduct which had the structure of 5- or 6-membered ring lactone was formed after the Diels-Alder reaction.
Polystyrene particles adhered to a glass plate were removed by a laminar flow produced in a wash-ing device equipped with a turn table of a gramophone and in a Terg-O-Tometer. The separating force was estimated from the viscosity resistance of the particles in a laminar flow. Relationships between the separating force and the removal percentage of particles from substrate were elucidated and the following results were obtained. 1) When the particles were removed at various rotation speed, the removal percentages were almost invariable, though the separating force increased. 2) The removal percentage increased with increasing surfactant concentration, in spite of almost invariable separating forces. 3) The removal percentage increased markedly with increasing washing temperature, though the separating force decreased. 4) The removal percentage obtained by use of a Terg-O-Tometer was similar to that obtained by use of a laminar flow.
Separation of homologous series of standard sodium N-acylated sarcosinates and fatty acid mono-isopropanol-amides with C12, C14, and C16 alkyl groups were studied by high speed liquid chromatography, employing octadecylsilica (TSK-Gel; LS-410, 5μm) as a column packing. The recommended conditions for the separation were as follows : column size, 4mm i.d.×25cm; eluent, water-methanol (15 : 85, vol/vol) adjusted to pH 2.2 with phosphoric acid; column temp., 50°C; detector, UV (210nm). The capacity factor (k') values of homologous series of sodium N-acylated sarcosinates were drastically affected with the eluent pH; the k' values increased with lowering the eluent pH. However, fatty acid monoisopropanolamides were not affected with the eluent pH. The logarithum values of the k' were directly proportional to the alkyl chain length of the standard surfactants. By using the same eluent conditions, other commercial N-acylated amino acid salts (anionic sur-factants) such as mono sodium N-acylated glutamates, sodium N-acylated-N-methyl taurates, and fatty acid alkanolamides (nonionic surfactants) such as fatty acid mono- and diethanolamides could be easily separated to their corresponding homologous series. Typical separation of coconut and hydrogenated tallow fatty acid derivatives were described in this paper.
A small amount of the single or mixed polar substances was added into the toluene solutions of nonylphenyl poly (oxyethylene) ethers and the concentration of the substance unbound or bound with surfactants was measured at various temperatures by gas chromatography. The binding constants and thermodynamic quantities on the surfactants were calculated from the data obtained. The results were useful in interpreting thermodynamically the interaction between the polar substances and nonylphenyl poly (oxyethylene) ethers.
Phase diagrams for pseudo three-component system, brine (0.5wt% NaCl) /2, 2, 4-trimethylpentane/Aerosol OT (sodium 1, 2-bis (2-ethylhexyloxycarbonyl) -1-ethanesulfonate) was studied in a wide range of temperature (2090°C). An excess wate is separated from solubilization curve below 41°C, whereas an excess oil is separated above 45°C. Hence, the solution behavior of Aerosol OT in brine-oil is similar to that of nonionic surfactant in water-oil, but the effect of temperature is in reverse. The amount of solubilized oil or water is not proportional to the concentration of Aerosol OT
The reaction of esters of Rf perfluorocarboxylic acids (C4, C8) with aliphatic amines (C86) in ethanol was studied. The reactivity depended on the structure of the amines used. The aminolysis with the amines having less steric hinderance proceeded easily and gave N-substituted amides in a high yield, but t-alkylamines gave the amides only in a low yield. Physical properties of the eleven newly synthesized N-alkylperfluorobutyramides and -perfluorooctanamides were presented.
The aminolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate by the polar substances in the presence of the reversed micelle of dodecylammonium propionate in benzene was studied. The rate constants for imidazole, 1-ethylimidazole, and pyrazole decreased in the order of imidazole>1-ethylimidazole>pyrazole. However, the addition of methanol inhibited the aminolysis by the dodecylammonium propionate micelle. The results were compared to the interaction between the polar substances and the micelle reported by Fendler and El Seoud et al.