A procedure was developed to adapt a differential scanning calorimeter to rapid quantitative determination of 1-monopalmitin in the mixtures of 1- and 2-monopalmitin. The DSC analyses were carried out as follows; 510mg of the sample (pure 1-monopalmitin or mixture) is placed in an aluminium pan which is placed in a sample holder. An empty pan is put in the reference holder. Heating and cooling rate is 10°C/min. and sensitivity range is 16. Fig.-1 shows the cooling curves which had two exothermic peaks (b, c) corresponding to the crystallization of α-form (65°C) and sub-α form (36.5°C). The areas above and below the base line are proportional to the amount of heat absorbed or evolved by 1-monopalmitin. In this case the ratio of larger peak area to smaller was 1.87 : 1. Fig.-4 is the plot of the smaller peak area versus the amount of 1-monopalmitin. As shown in Fig.-5 the smaller peak area (shaded part) increases with the amount of 1-monopalmitin. Therefore, the quantitative determination of 1-monopalmitin in the monopalmitin mixture, was made by measuring smaller peak area. The error of determination was within 2% (Table-1).
Hydrogenated cotton seed oil, hydrogenated linseed oil, hydrogenated soybean oil and completely hydrogenated soybean oil were heated to 130°C to collect volatile hydrogenation flavor. In volatile component from hydrogenated linseed oil, the existence of 6-trans-nonenal was confirmed using the gas liquid chromatography and infrared spectra. This compound is obviously small in the quantity. In volatile component of hydrogenated soybean oil, 6-trans-nonenal could not be confirmed in this study, which is evidently less than that of hydrogenated linseed oil in the quantity. Flavor of non-acidic volatiles of completely hydrogenated soybean oil and hydrogenated cotton seed oil are different from hydrogenated linseed oil and hydrogenated soybean oil. Also 2 trans-, 4 trans-dodecadienal was identified, which is most in the quantity existing in every flavor component of hydrogenated oil in common.
In a previous paper, authors reported that the toxic substances in the thermally oxidized oils were obtained in diethylether eluate (fr. III) when chromatographed on a silicic acid column. The present study is for investigation of the absorption and the distribution of the toxic fraction in the bodies of rats. Samples of thermally oxidized oils were prepared by heating soybean oil with air bubbling and fed to animals in 20 % of the diet for 4 weeks. After the feeding experiment, lipids were extracted from the feces, liver, and intestine and separated by column chromatography to determine the fr. III quantitatively. Results indicate that more than 55% of the toxic fraction was absorbed and that dimers of glyceride in the toxic fraction could be absorbed through the intestine.
As a part of examinations on the physical properties of margarine, differential thermal analysis (DTA) of margarine was carried out and comparative examinations were made with hardness and S.F.I. The samples used were three commercial packaged cartons, three soft type sold in cups, two packaged in parchment paper, and two special products, and three commercial butter samples were used as reference. 1) The DTA curve of domestic carton-packaged margarine showed three endothermic peaks, while similar foreign products showed only two peaks. The DTA curve of the sparated oil showed approximately a similar tendency but the product containing a large proportion of linolic acid showed a peak at temperature below 0°C. 2) The DTA curve of soft margarine sold in cups showed the same tendency as the cartonpackaged margarine and the peak temperature tended to become lower with increasing amount of linolic acid. Consequently, the soft margarines all had smaller S.F.I. and lower hardness than carton-packaged products. 3) The DTA curve of the parchment-packaged margarine showed three endothermic peaks but the peak temperature in the highest side was high (above 35°C) and the peak was high. 4) The DTA curves of imitation margarine containing over 50% water content and gas-containing margarine were entirely different from those of carton-packaged and soft margarine, but such characteristics were not seen in the DTA curve of the separated oil. 5) In the case of butter there recognized a correlation between DTA curve and hardness, but different from margarine, there can be seen very minute difference in the DTA curve of separated oils between those from various kinds of butter because of the minute difference in the composition of butters. 6) Physical properties of margarine is greatly influenced by factors which are otherwise from the raw material oil and fat, therefore, the DTA is more suitable for the product itsself than the separated oil and fat.
Physicochemical properties, such as foaming power, solubilizing power, suface tension and others, of a series of sodium N-alkyloyl sarcosinates (abbreviated as CnCO sarcosinates) with n from 9 to 17 have been measured in relation to their alkyloyl chain length. These properties are highly dependent on the alkyloyl chain length as expected. The foaming power at 25°C increases at first with increasing chain length until n reaches to 15, and then decreases rapidly owing to the low solubility in water. The solubilizing power for an oil soluble dye, Yellow OB, increases with increasing chain length. The surface tension above the critical micelle concentration is approximately 35 dyne/cm irrespectively of the chain length. The solubility in water becomes low when n exceeds 15. The properties of the mixtures of CnCO sarcosinates with different alkyloyl chain-length have been also examined. The effects of soap and water hardness on the foaming power of C11CO sarcosinate were also reported.
A new amphoteric surfactant, sodium N-dodecyl N, N-bisethoxyacetate (NaDEA), has been synthesized by the reaction of N-dodecyl N, N-bishydroxyethylamine with sodium monochloroacetate in the presence of sodium hydroxide. NaDEA has high solubility in water and is soluble even at its isoelectric point, probably owing to the ether-bonds in the molecule. The electrical state of NaDEA greatly depends on the pH of the solution, which governs its physicochemical properties. The electrostatic potential of the micelle calculated from the pH titration data is negative above pH 3. The solubilizing power for Yellow OB changes with the pH of the solution and it is greater in the acid region than in the alkaline region. The critical micelle concentration estimated from the solubilization-concentration curve also changes with pH. Some properties, such as solubilizing power, foaming power and adsorption, of the mixed solutions of NaDEA with sodium dodecyl polyoxyethylene sulfate or sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate have been examined. Interactions between these surfactants have been observed in the mixed solutions.
Sodium methanesulfonates of benzamide, p-toluamide, p-toluensulfonamide, p-tert-butylbenzenesulfonamide and p-dodecylbenzenesulfonamide were prepared. Measurements of their physicochemical properties such as surface tension, specific gravity, relative viscosity, electroconductivity, and also test of emulsification, permeation and solubilization were carried out for the aqueous solution. From these results, sodium p-dodecylbenzenesulfonamide-methanesulfonate was excellent as a surfactant as well as sodium dodecylbenzesulfonate.
Various amine salts of dialkylphosphites were prepared. The effect of these salts on the critical antiwear load of gear oil and liquid paraffin was investigated. Aniline, 1, 2, 3-benzotriazole, diphenylamine and oleylamine salts of dimethylphosphite, diethylphosphite and dibutylphosphite showed excellent properties on antiwear tests using Soda's four ball machine.