In Japan, Many oilseeds are imported from various foreign countries. Recent research of plant breeding in the world has been made by means of customary breeding but also such new biotechnology as tissue culture, genetic technology, and so on. Concrete targets of plant breeding has been as follows. As for soybean, those are yield up, increase in oil and protein contents, improvement of fatty acids composition, and decrease in lipoxygenase activity. As for rapeseed, decrease in erucic acid and glucosinolate, and improvement of fatty acids composition. As for palm, improvement of oil quality, and development of lower tree. As for sunflower and safflower, high oleic oils have been commercially developed. In future, research of plant breeding of oilseeds will be more faster and successful by the application of the advanced biotechnology.
The synergistic antioxidant effects of d-tocopherol (d-Tocs) and extracted components from coffee beans on lard and palm oil were investigated by oven and AOM tests. The components were petroleum ether (PE) and ethanol (EtOH) extracts of dry and roasted beans, hexane soluble and insoluble components of the EtOH extract, caffeic and chlorogenic acids. Tocs and sterol in different varieties of coffee beans were also analyzed. 1) In coffee beans, β-, α- and γ-tocopherols were contained in approximately a 4 : 2 : 0.1 ratio, the total content being about 5.56.9mg/100g. The predominance of β-tocopherol is a prominent feature of coffee beans, in contrast to other vegetables and fruits. 2) On lard, the EtOH extract of coffee beans showed greater antioxidant effect than the PE extract ; the effect of hexane insoluble components from roasted beans was particularly remarkable. The components also greatly enhanced the effect of a mixture of d-Toc as their added amounts were increased. The effects on palm oil were essentially the same. 3) Chlorogenic acid in coffee beans showed the same effects as the above components, but they were less pronounced than those of caffeic acid, the constituent moiety of chlorogenic acid. The content of this acid in hexane insoluble components from roasted beans was less than that from dry beans. Thus, the effects of the components may primarily be attributable to caffeic acid derivatives produced from chlorogenic acid by roasting.
Changes in viscosity of cocoa butter and chocolate during crystallization processes were measured by a rotational viscometer which was newly equipped in the present study. This viscometer facilitates a computerized tempering with agitation of the sample, yielding a torque of sample. The tempering process was a simple cooling of melt (60°C) to several crystallization temperatures. It was confirmed that the torque was linearly proportional to viscosity values obtained by Brookfield type viscometer. The viscosity changed through three different stages : First, the constant viscosity was attained after the crystallization temperature was reached. Second, the viscosity gradually increased due to early nucleation and crystal growth of solid fats. Third, a sharp increase of viscosity was caused by accelerated crystallization. The amount of crystallized fats in chocolate during the industrial-used tempering machine (60-27-30°C) was estimated about 0.17%, based on the viscosity changes examined by the present method.
Naturally occurring glycerophospholipids which are mainly composed of phosphatidyl choline (PC), phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE), phosphatidyl inositol (PI) and phosphatidyl serine (PS) were able to be separated into their molecular species by reversed phase HPLC. The separation was achieved on a silica C1 (Fine SIL C1) column, using a mobile phase of hexane/2-propanol/water (6/8/1 vol/vol/vol) at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min., and the eluants were monitored simultaneously at 210nm of a multi-channel UV detector. Peroxidized molecular species of soybean phospholipids such as PC-30 in which PC was contained ca. 30%, PC-70, PC-95 and PE could be selectively identified by monitoring with the detector at 235nm, and good linear relationships (Y=1.01×10-3X, correlation coefficient r=0.9810.991 for all samples used here) were observed between the ratio of peak area at 235nm of the peroxides to that of all peaks at 210nm on the chromatogram and peroxide value (POV) of sample phospholipid in the range of 050meq/kg. On the basis of this linear relationship, POVs of each molecular species of autoxidized phospholipids originated from soybean, linseed and egg yolk were determined, and reliable values could be obtained by this newly developed method having good reproducibility and the lowest detection limits of 0.5 nano-equivalents of peroxides in comparison with the potentiometric POV method which employed as a standard method to measure the POV of samples.
In a series of studies on the application of lipases to detergency, the effects of the degree of hydrolysis of triolein soil by lipolytic enzymes, lipases, on removals were examined using triolein as a model triglyceride soil. First, the model mixed soil at various degrees of hydrolysis by Candida cylindracea lipase (Can) was washed by a several surfactant solutions. Secondly, as lipase detergency, a two step system of pre-soaking in lipase solution (Can and Mu) and washing by a surfactant solution, was carried out to avoid interactions between lipase and surfactants. In both cases, with increase in the degree of hydrolysis, removal of the triolein soil by anionic surfactants such as SDS, LAS and AOS, was highly improved due to interactions between hydrolysates and surfactants, while that by nonionic surfactants was not influenced by the degree of hydrolysis. However, a comparison of both cases, even at the same hydrolysis degree, indicated removal in lipase-detergent systems to surpass that in the model mixed soil. Considering the fact that hydrolysis reactions by lipase proceed at the oil/water interface, a removal can thus be explained as the efficient concentration of hydrolysates at oil/water interface. The application of lipases is concluded to be quite effective for the removal of triglyceride soil.
Simultaneous measurements of zeta (ζ) -potential and critical flocculation concentration (c.f.c.) s for two standard latex suspensions (Sample-A : Styrene/Nass copolymer latices, Sample-B : Amphoteric latices) were carried out so as to assess the reliability of each of these measurement techniques and find means for their improvement. The ζ-potential measurements were carried out at nine laboratories using different electrophoretic apparatus, which included the Rank Brother M-2, PEN KEM-501, PEN KEM-3000 and Malvern Zetasizer-F. The data from all the laboratories showed fair agreement. Elevated potential supply was found to increase the slope of the ζ vs. pH curve near the isoelectric point of sample-B. The c.f.cs. of KNO3, Mg (NO3) 2 and La (NO3) 3 for sample-A, were determined simultaneously by a static method and the results compared with those determined by a kinetic method and dynamic light scattering (L.S.). The order of the magnitude of the values of c.f.c. can be expressed as follows : static method < L.S. technique < kinetic method. Furthermore, it was found that in determining the c.f.c., the solid concentration in the medium was important factor.
Interactions between L-α-phosphatidylcholines and water molecules were examined primarily by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a surface pressure meter. With increasing temperature, only a gel-lamella liquid crytstalline transition (Tc) occured in a lower moisture region, while a coagel-gel transition (Tgel) was noted at a temperature less than Tc, in a moisture region higher than 20wt%. With increase in alkyl chain length of L-α-phosphatidylcholine molecules, the transition enthalpy at Tc increased, while that of Tgel remained essentially constant. L-α-phosphatidylcholine monolayer had a form of condensed-film in a lower temperature region and that of an expanded-film in a higher temperature region. Their limiting molelcular areas suddenly increased steeply at Tc-temperature. Tc for L-α-phosphatidylcholine as determined from surface pressure was in good agreement with that found by DSC measurement. This may be due to the fact that the Tc transition results from the horizontal intermolecular interaction.
Two types of isotropic surfactant phases (microemulsions) were found in a brine/sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) /hexanol/hexadecane system, and their phase behavior was systematically investigated. In the system of water/SDS/hexanol, lamellar liquid crystals (L.C.) coexisted with excess water (W) and oil (alcohol; Om) phases under the condition of an exact balance between hydrophile-lipophile constituents of the mixed surfactant (SDS+hexanol). The addition of salt caused the L.C. to turn into an isotropic surfactant phase (D') coexisting with W and Om, a reversed micellar solution phase. With the addition of hexadecane, the Om phase split into an excess oil phase (O) and surfactant phase (D) in which large amounts of oil and water, were solubilized; the latter is known as a middle-phase microemulsion. The solubilization of hexadecane in the D' phase was only slight, and its composition remained in the vicinity of brine-SDS-hexanol plane. Two three-phase regions, W+D+O and W+D'+Om (or D) were formed independently at higher temperature, but they overlapped and four coexisting phases (W+D'+D+O) were observed in a certain range of lower temperature. L.C., D', and D phases appeared at an exact balance of hydrophile-lipophile constituents of the surfactant in a diluted region, but the order of surfactant molecular assembly reverted from the L.C. to D phase by way of the D' phase.
A series of poly (o-vinylphenol), poly (m-vinylphenol) and poly (p-vinylphenol) were synthesized and their antioxidant effects on autoxidation of lard were examined by oven tests at 60°C. The results were compared with those for corresponding novolak type oligomers. Polyvinylphenols showed better antioxidant effects than the corresponding monomers, but were slightly inferior to BHT. Both the position of hydroxyl groups on aromatic rings and molecular weights of the polyvinylphenols were the factors determining the strength of this effects. The most effective molecular weights for poly (o-vinylphenol) and poly (p-vinylphenol) were from about 600 to 700. Polyvinylphenols were slightly inferior to novolaks in antioxidant effects. Of the polyvinylphenols, poly (o-vinylphenol) was best. These differences may possibly be due to cooperative intra-molecular hydrogen bonding between phenolic hydroxyl groups and the conformation of polymer chains in lard.
The fatty acid composition of lipids in cuts of coho salmon was examined by GLC, before and after cooking, such as by broiling on a hot plate, broiling in a gas oven, broiling in a microwave range, boiling with water or deep fat frying. Broiling in gas oven for a long time, higher unsaturated fatty acids such as EPA and DHA decreased by about one third. The fatty acid composition was not particularly except in the case of broiling in a gas oven. On frying a cut of salmon with a coating, part of the lipid in the salmon moved to the coating, but entered very little into the frying oil.
Two series of N-[2- [ω-methyl oligo (oxyethylene)] decyl ]monoaza crown ethers (2 a-c and 2 d-f) were prepared from N- (2-hydroxydecyl) monoaza crown ethers (1 a : -15-crown-5 and 1 b : -18-crown-6) and ω-methyl oligo (oxyethylene) tosylates (Scheme-1). The cloud point, complexing stability constant (log K1') with alkali metal cations (Na+ and K+) in methanol and phase-transfer catalysis (PTC) were determined for the products and compared with those of reference compounds. The crown ethers with oligo (oxyethylene) chains (2) generally showed higher cloud points and greater log K1' than those of the corresponding N-decyl monoaza crown ethers (3). The cloud points of (2) in both series and log K1' (K+) of (2) in 15-membered series increased with the number of oxyethylene units in the side chain. A plot of log K1' (Na+ and K+) vs. the total number of oxygen atoms in a molecule of the crown compounds showed a clear peak at six oxygen atoms for each series except for log K1' (K+) of the 15-membered series. The enhanced cation-complexing ability of (2) reflects the high efficiency of PTC with (2) which was superior to that of any of the reference compounds, (1), (3) or (4). The order of log K1' showed close correlation with the PTC efficiency in each series.