The composition of the conjugated lipids obtained from the viscera of T. cormaus was studied. The lipids were separated and purified by silicic acid column chromatography followed by dialysis (cellophane or rubber), DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, thin layer chromatography, and mild alkaline hydrolysis (Scheme-1). Thin-layer chromatography and infrared spectroscopy were used for the identification of each purified lipid ; then, the hydrolyzed products were analyzed by paper chromatography, gas chromatography, and automatic amino acid analyzer. The results of the analysis were as follows : (1) The phospholipid fractions were composed of two kinds of glycerophospholipids which were phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl choline, and two sphingophosphonolipids which consisted of C16-sphingosine, carbon-phosphorus bonding nitrogen-base (2-N-methylaminoethylphosphonic acid), and fatty acids (one was mainly palmitic acid and another mainly palmitic acid and uncharacterized acid X). (2) The glycolipid was a globoside type mucolipid which contained sphingosine bases, fatty acids (mainly palmitic acid and uncharacterized acid X), and sugars (glucose, galactose, fucose, and glucosamine).
Many kind of lard are now available which have improved physical properties according to use, Examinations were made on the melting point, iodine value and Bömer number of commercial lard, and also S.F.I. and micro-penetration test were carried out, from which the presence of some characteristic properties was found. The same examinations and tests were then carried out on lard added with hardened fat and on that ester-exchanged. 1) Addition of hardened beef tallow, hardened palm oil, hardened lard, lard-stearin or tallowstearin results in rapid rise in the melting point and enlargement of the plastic range, but the.Bömer number decreases rapidly. Addition of these kinds of hardened fat in 5% of the amount gives outside values from the range of pure lard. 2) Hardened lard and lard-stearin can be discriminated as pure lard from the content of C15 and the ratio of C14/C16 even if they have a low Bömer number. 3) The ester-exchanged lard has good physical properties but its Bömer number is markedly low and it cannot be discriminated from beef tallow. However, discrimination as the pure lard is possible from the ratio of fatty acids of C14/C16 C18 : 1/C18 : 2, and C14+C16+C18/C18 : 2.
A series of sodium polyoxypropylated lauryl sulfates (PPLS, adducts of 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol of propylene oxide) was synthesized and the change in their surface activities such as surface tension, foaming properties, wetting power, dispersing power and emulsifying power, by the difference in the number of moles of propylene oxide added, was discussed in comparison with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). The surface tension and the cmc values of PPLS are lower than those of SLS. The foaming power and the foam stability of PPLS, excluding the case of 1 mol adduct, are inferior to those of SLS. The wetting, dispersing and emulsifying powers of PPLS having more than 3 mol of propylene oxide are superior to those of SLS. PPLS are generally excellent surfactants.
Emulsifying property of binary aqueous solutions of dodecyl pyridinium chloride (DPC) -metal soap for various hydrophobic organic substances (which will be designated as oils hereinafter) was investigated. The metal soaps used were mainly stearates and ricinoleates of alkaline and alkaline earth metals. Five substances, that is, cottonseed oil (CO, required HLB, 10), liquid paraffin (LP, 12), kerosene (K, 12.5) cetyl alcohol (CA, 15), and dimethyl phthalate (DMP, 15) were employed as the oils. The property was studied chiefly with the mixed solutions of DPC : metal soap=2.5 to 20 : 1 for the range of molar ratio. The emulsifying power of DPC for the oils was not affected by the addition of a small quantity of metal soap (1/1001/1000 mol) but remarkably changed when 1/101/3 mol of the metal soap was added. In the case of sodium ricinoleate, the change in the optimum oil for DPC was inconspicuous, while it was remarkable with the salts of barium, magnesium etc. and K and LP were optimum with a higher degree of emulsification. With the solution having a DPC : metal soap mixing ratio of 0.02 : 0.004 mol/l, stearates showed a particularly excellent emulsifying power, which was not so greatly varied with metals. Laurates were somewhat good, but ricinoleates showed a little inferior emulsifying power being greatly influenced by metals the salts of barium, magnesium and lithium showed better results than other metals. It was a common tendency that every metal soap showed a good emulsifying power for K and LP, but for other oils it became less favorable. The kind of the optimum oil for DPC was not affected by the addition of free fatty acid, its methyl ester or short-chained metallic compounds. The result that stearates possessed the best power for emulsifying property was considerably different from that obtained with wetting power and other properties reported previously. The additivity of HLB observed with nonionic surfactants seemed not to hold for the present mixed solution systems.
The elution curves in gel filtration using two kinds of bio-bead gel (S-X 2 and S-X 8) were measured for tristearin, fatty acid, cholesterol and its ester which were considered to be the main components of organic soils from the practical application of underwear. When chloroform was applied as the elution solvent, only one peak was observed in the both elution curves in gel filtration of the mixed lipid using S-X 2 and S-X 8. On the other hand, many peaks corresponding to the components contained in lipid mixture were observed in elution curve obtained by the gel filtration using S-X 2 gel and benzene as the elution solvent. The relations between the elution volumes corresponding to peaks in elution curves and molecular weight were discussed.
A method has been developed for quantitative determination of arsenic in refined soybean oil, sunflower oil and rape seed oil. The irradiation was carried out in TRIGA-II small reactor with neutron flux of 1011n/cm2/sec for 20 hours of the maximum irradiation time. After cooling, the sample was dissolved in acid by treating with nitric-sulfuric-perchloric acid under presence of carrier of the arsenic. The procedure for the distillation of arsenic is similar to that adopted by B. Sjostrand in his investigations on the recovery of arsenic from soybean oil, sunflower oil and rape seed oils. The mean chemical yield was maximum 82 percent for the arsenic, and the sensitivity of the method was 10-3 ppm. This method has an advantage in that it makes possible to minimize the loss and contamination.