To characterize kapok seed oil as frying oil, stabilities of the oil against thermal oxidative and hydrolytic deterioration and some related deteriorations were examined in the continuous waterspraying and heating system (Fig.-24). In this experiment, practical increase of acid value was not observed, and the oil showed verygood stability against hydrolytic deterioration, whereas it was very unstable against thermal oxidative deterioration, that is, rapid increase of viscosity and forming tendency was observed. When the fat surface was protected from air by means of metal float, these thermal oxidative deterioration was remarkably prevented, and in addition, the oil after heating maintained its light colour and good stability against autoxidation at room temperature. As shown in Fig.-5, in the case of addition of refined kapok seed oil to soybean oil, remarkable improvement was observed in the hydrolytic deterioration of soybean oil. The high stability against hydrolytic deterioration of kapok seed oil may depend on the high content of cyclopropenoid fatty acid in the oil. As proved by Nunn et al. cyclopropene group reacts with carboxyl group easily (Fig.-1). Free fatty acid which occurs during treatment may combine with cyclopropene group and thus the free fatty acid concentration in the oil may be kept very low and the autocatalytic action of free fatty acid to hydrolysis is prevented. On the other hand, the high sensibility against thermal oxidative deterioraton may also depend on the cyclopropenoid fatty acid in the oil. Accordingly, when fat surface is protected from air during frying, kapok seed oil is considered as a stable frying oil and also as a very effective stability improver against hydrolysis of other frying oils.
In order to estimate the structure and constituent of the cyclic monomer obtained from heated linseed oil, this experiment was conducted by infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography. Linseed oil was heated in autoclave at 295°C, for 15 minutes, in the presence of sodium hydroxide (100% excess) and 3 times vol. of ethylene glycol. The reaction mixture was then acidified with dilute sulfuric acid, and the free fatty acids were esterified with methyl alcohol in the usual way, followed by vacuum distillation and one part of the distilled ester was fractionated into each monomer of cyclic and straight chain by urea adduct separation, and each monomer was saturated by hydrogenation. Other part, after hydrogenation, was separated into saturated cyclic monomer and saturated straight chain monomer by low temperature separation. The saturated cyclic monomers prepared by both methods, were considered as identical material from their properties and by GLC, and the yields (35.2%) were nearly the same. It was found that the constituent of hydrogenated cyclic monomer consisted of seven components by GLC. IR spectra indicated the presence of an aromatic structure for f he cyclic monomer by the absorption at 3030, 1603, 1495 and 750 cm-1.
The glyceride type values of a fat can be calculated from its fatty acid distribution, and conversely, the fatty acid distribution can be calculated from its glyceride type values. This calculation was, conducted graphically. From each glyceride type value, a curve named glyceride type isoquant that shows a same glyceride type value can be drawn, and the saturated acid distribution is obtained as intersecting point of four glyceride type isoquants. By means of this glyceride type isoquant method suggested, it was clarified that usual method that has beeh used to estimate the fatty acid distribution of acids by comparing the glyceride composition calculated from an assumed fatty acid distribution with the analyzed. glyceride composition is unreliable. The saturated acid distributions of several fats and the distributions of saturated, monoenoic, and dienoic acids of lard were estimated by this method, indicating unequal distribution of acids in the 1 and 3 positions. The possibility of the ordered distribution hypothesis proposed previously was discussed. Assuming the selectivities with variable degrees in the esterification of the 1 and 2 position, wide range of the acid distribution containing random distribution, 1, 3-random 2-random distribution, and 1-random 2, 3-random distribution is obtained. The saturated acid distributions of many fats may fall in this range of ordered distribution. It is also shown that the presence of a racemic glyceride cannot be a proof of equal distribution of acids in the 1 and 3 positions, because in a special case, unequal distribution leads a racemic glyceride.
It is self-evident that the most important evaluation factor for detergents is detersive effect. Authors put the test cloths on the neck of clothes and prepared naturally soiled cloths, and selected evenly soiled cloths for washing test. Washing tests with different detergents A and B by these cloths were performed and the detersive effect was compared with detergent A and B by Scheffe's pair comparison method. Although constant soiling level was not obtaineble through the experiment, relative detersive effect between two detergents A and B at different areas, seasons and time of storage by these naturally soiled cloths were consistent and highly reproducible. In conclusion, the present method of evaluating two detergents at different conditions seems more reliable than the method by artificially soiled cloths available.
Various oil-soluble dyes have been used in many petroleum products. The structural analysis of oil-soluble dyes is essential for identification of commercial dyes and detection of their impurities. This paper deals with the separation and identification of azo and anthraquinone oil-soluble dyes, and fluorescent oil-soluble dyes by paper chromatography. Peculiar Rf value was given to each oil-soluble dye by partition paper crhomatography using liquid paraffin or n-cetane as the the stationary phase and 80% ethyl alcohol as the mobile phase. The author found it is possible to discriminate p-dimethylamino-azobenzene having carcinogenic properties from p-diethylamino-azobenzene and to detect impurities in commercial dyes by these solvent systems.
The oils were obtained from the above mentioned and shell-fish by ether extraction. The properties of the oils (Table-2) and the components of the fatty acids (Table-3) were examined. From the gas chromatography analysis of the methyl esters of the fatty acids of these oils, it was found that these fatty acids were composed of C12C22 saturated and unsaturated (F1, F2, F3, F4, etc.), which chiefly contained the same kinds of the fatty acids of so-called common fish oil, as well with those of the shell-fish oils. The crude unsaponifiables separated from those oils were confirmed by means of the digitonin method or Whitby's reaction. It was also examined that the snail oil had a sterol with mp 142144°C, which recrystallized from 90% ethanol, and the sterols separated from other roll-shells had mp 141142°C.