In the case of unhydrogenated natural oils and fats, it is well known that the configurations of polyz unsaturated fatty acids are almost so uniform that an accurate AOM stability is estimated from a fatty acid composition. The correlation of AOM value (POV=100) and fatty acid composition obtained in this study is as follows : AOM (h) =600/Pu (1) (Pu = diene percent + triene percent ×2) The equation of mixed oil with unhydrogenated oils derived from the equation (1) is as follows : _??_ (2) Where A1, Ai and An are AOM values of individual oils, and x1, xi and xn are weight fractions of them. However, an unsaturated fatty acid composition of partially hydrogenated oil was very complex and an equation of AOM value and Pu was different from that of unhydrogenated oil. Rate of oxidation obtained under AOM condition showed three steps of a, b and c until POV reached to 100. It was understood that an intersection of a and c was approximately equivalent to AOM value. In the case of hydrogenated mixed oils, the same as the equation (2) was derived from the result, too. The AOM values of mixed oils calculated from this equation agreed finely with the values observed, except lard mixed.
Modes of hydrogenation of edible oils and fats were investigated for an estimation of triacylglcerol composition of hydrogenated oil. From the data obtained, the rate o hydrogenation showed no difference in acyl positions and was directly proportional to their unsaturation degree. On the other hand, the formation of trans isomer was essentially the same in 1, 3-and 2-position and was proportional to the decrease of iodine value up to traps equilibrium value, and then the trans isomer decreased with the decrease of iodine value. The selectivities in 2-position tended slightly low, but they were negligible for the estimation of triacylglycerol composition in this report. From the results obtained the authors assume as follows. 1. Hydrogenation with nickel catalysts is the first-order consecutive reaction, and there are no difference in rate of hydrogenation and selectivities (S31, S21) between acyl positions. 2. The trans isomerization is not affected with acyl position, and is in proport on to trans isomerization ratio (TI = Δtrans/ ΔIV) dependent on hydrogenating condition and the traps isomer decreases with iodine value from trans equilibrium value. 3. There is no migration of acyl position during hydrogenation. Using S31, S21 and TI obtained experimentally, fatty acid composition and iodine value of hydrogenated oil were calculated by this simulation. Morever, saturated (S), trans unsaturated (E) and cis unsaturated (U) acid in acyl positions were calculated by this simulation. From the S, E and U calculated, the triacylglycerol compositions of hydrogenated soybean oil, cottonseed oil and rapeseed oil were estimated and illustrated by diagrams.
The interaction of single components and mixtures of methanol, ethanol, acetone, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, and acetic acid with the reversed micelles of Aerosol OT and dodecylammonium propionate in toluene or cyclohexane were investigated. The concentration of free polar substances in the medium was measured at 20.0, 27.5, and 35.0 by the gaschromatographic method. The binding constants and the change of thermodynamic quantities (ΔG°, ΔH°, and Δ S°) for the interaction between the polar substances and the reversed micelles were obtained from these data.
In order to investigate the lipid productivity of many species of fungi, 13 species (24 strains) of Deuteromycetes (Fungi Imperfecti), which were obtained from the Institute for Fermentation, Osaka, were examined. The lipids extracted from the cells grown in stationary cultures were separated into neutral and polar lipids by silicic acid column chromatography. The fatty acid composition of both lipid fractions was determined by GLC. The resolution of the individual neutral lipids (triglyceride, diglyceride, monoglyceride, sterol ester, sterol, and free fatty acid) and the individual polar lipids (phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl serine, phosphatidyl inositol, phosphatidyl glycerol, cardiolipin, lysophosphatidyl choline, and glycolipid containing phosphorus) was achieved by TLC, and the detailed composition of the cellular lipids of 13 species of Deuteromycetes was quantitatively determined. Penicillium lilacinurn was found to have large amounts of lipids in the cells cultivated at 30°C.
The lipid productivities of six species (11 strains) of fungi of the order Mucorales in the class Zygomycetes obtained from Institute for Fermentation, Osaka, were investigated. The total lipid extracts of fungus cells grown by stationary culture method were separated to neutral lipid and polar lipid fractions by silicic acid column chromatography, and the amounts of both fractions were determined. Fatty acid compositions of the lipids were analyzed by gas liquid chromatography. Futhermore, the compositions of both lipid fraction were quantitatively determined by thin layer chromatographic analysis. The total lipid amount of Mortierella isabellina IFO No. 7884 was 86.1% of the dry fungus cells cultivated at 20°C.
The lipid productivities of five species (9 strains) of genus Pellicularia in Bacidiomycetes obtained from the Institute for Fermentation, Osaka, were investigated. The lipid extracts of the stationary phase cells cultivated by stationary culture method were fractionated into neutral and polar lipid fractions by silicic acid column chromatography. The fatty acid compositions of both lipid fractions were determined by gas liquid chromatography. Futhermore, the lipid compositions of both fractions were quantitatively determined. It is found that the lipid productivities and the contents of total cellular lipids of the genus Pellicularia, varied among the strains, but the levels of linoleic acid in their total lipids are commonly high in any case. The lipid productivities of four species (5 strains) of the genus Pellicularia cultivated by shaking culture were also investigated. It was observed that the levels of linoleic acid in the lipids were high not only in the case of usage of glucose as a carbon source, but also in the case of usage of cellulose.
The viscometric behavior on the interaction of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with sodium 2-sulfonatofatty acid methyl esters [abbr. SFM, CnH2n+1CH (SO3Na) COOCH3 ; n=12 : STM and n=14 : SHM] in aqueous solution was investigated in the absence and in the presence of urea. The formation of a polyelectrolytelike complex between PVA and the SFM was confirmed from the viscosity change with the concentration of surfactant. At high concentration of surfactant above cmc, the intrinsic viscosity [η] of PVA-STM solution was smaller than that of PVA-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution. This suggests that the PVA-STM complex in aqueous solution may be existed in more contracted molecule than the PVA-SDS complex. Also it was suggested that the formation of the PVA-SFM complex may possibly be attributed to the van der Waals' force between PVA and the surfactant and in addition, the intramolecular hydrogen bond of complex molecule between a carbonyl group of bound SFM on PVA and a long range hydroxyl group of PVA chain. The [η] CS (CS : surfactant concentration) curve for STM showed that the value of [η] increased with increasing amount of STM in the region of cmc around to 10-2M and it was depressed above 10-2M. At the concentration of surfactant above 10-2M, the degree of a drop in [η] of PVA-STM complex with the concentration of urea was much smaller than that of PVA-SDS complex.
Using hardened oils with different degree of hardening and mixed fats in various ratio, comparative examinations were made on open-tubed melting points measured by the Elex automatic melting point apparatus (EMP) and by the conventional method (OMP). Also, EMP and OMP of plastic fat products, such as margarine and shortening, were compared. Results obtained were as follows 1) In hardened oils and mixed fats, the difference between EMP and OMP was less than 0.5 °C in all cases and no significant difference was observed statistically. 2) The dispersion of EMP measurements was only slightly larger in soybean oil and fish oil with low degree of hardening and in coconut oil with high degree of hardening. However, it showed σ=0.2 or less in most samples and tended to slightly lower than that of OMP measurements, although to be not statistically significant. 3) In plastic fat products, EMP was almost agreed with OMP in each sample. Consequently, in EMP method, even non-experienced person can conduct measurements with relatively small dispersion, because the control of rate of temperature rise and the reading of end point are made automatically. Thus, EMP method is believed to be useful as an alternative to the conventional OMP method.