High Molecular weight polycarboxylates, which contain biodegradable segments in the polymer chain, are accepted as the substrates for the extracellular enzymes of environmental microbes. They were prepared as an attempt to develop biodegradable polycarboxylates, and their biodegradability and builder performance in heavy duty detergent formulations were evaluated. Polycarboxylates containing sugar groups as biodegradable segments were prepared by partial dicarboxylation of naturally occurring polysaccharides via dialdehydes. In addition, polycarboxylates containing vinyl alcohol groups as biodegradable segments were prepared by radical copolymerization of functional carboxylate monomers and vinyl acetate with subsequent saponification. Polymers that contain chain length longer than a definite chain length of sugar blocks or polyvinyl alcohol blocks as biodegradable segments, which are incorporated into the polymer chain in such a manner that they are accepted as substrates by the corresponding degrading enzymes, are biodegradable in the environment. The biodegradability and builder performance of these polymers varied inversely with the content of the biodegradable segment in the polymer chain. The influence of the polymer structure on biodegradability and builder performance was analyzed. In addition, polycarboxylates containing ester linkages, acetal linkages or carbonyl groups were also evaluated and compared for their biodegradability and builder performances.
The adsorption of a cationic-anionic surfactants mixed system on keratin powder was studied using keratin powder in place of hair. The anionic adsorption isotherm of anionic surfactant was of the Langmuir-type. Those of cationic surfactant and cationic-anionic surfactant mixed system showed irreversible adsorption owing to strong interaction with keratin powder. The extent of adsorption was maximum at molar ratio 7/3 of cationic/anionic surfactants. The kinetic frictional coefficient was least and interaction between surfactants and ovalbumin, weakest. That the cationic-anionic surfactants mixed system has the properties of nonionic surfactant in aqueous solution and that the monomer concentrations of cationics having strong irritation decrease may suffice as explanation for the above results.
A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system with a light scattering detector (mass detector) was established to determine the relationship between signal response and molecular species of triacylglycerol. Following the injection of sufficient amounts of samples, the detector showed very good reproducibility. Signal intensity from the detector increased with sample retention time. The logarism of sample amount was proportional to the logarithm of responsibility. Responsibility was influenced by nebulizing pressure and evaporator temperature of the detector. Quantitative analysis using a mass detector with a calibration curve gave results more accurate than those obtainable by a reflactive index detector.
Sulfonation of maleic acid monoesters of EOAA (ethylene oxide adducts of C1214s-alcohols) using sodium sulfite or sodium hydrogensulfite were conducted under various reaction conditions. Disodium salts of sulfonatosuccinic acid monoester of EOAA were obtained in high yield and purity by adjusting reaction temperature, atmosphere (N2), molar ratios of reactants and pH at the start of reactions while supressing the oxidation of sulfites and hydrolysis of monoesters of products or/and raw material. Examination was also made of hydrolysis of salts of maleic acid monoesters or salts of sulfonatosuccinic acid monoesters of EOAA at different pH. Molecular orbital calculation indicated the salts of maleic acid monoesters to be hydrolyzed more easily than those of sulfonatosuccinic acid monoesters. Proton NMR analysis and molecular orbital calculation indicated the insersion of the NaSO3- group into the double bonds of salts of maleic acid monoesters to occur mainly at the α-position.
The present study has revealed that anionic surfactants derived from EOAA (ethylene oxide adducts of s-alcohols), especially, salts of sulfonatosuccinic acid monoesters of EOAA have a property of low irritation for skin or eye, and, furthermore, have a property of synergistic effect to eliminate the skin or eye irritation of other anionic surfactants by co-use. These efficiency should be occured from higher surface tension, lower wetting power, larger cmc and larger HLB compared with usual anionics. Thus, salts of sulfonatosuccinic acid monoesters of EOAA can be used to the detergent for a hair or body shampoo and a light duty liquid detergent as a extremely lower irritating detergent raw material with high safety.
The essential oil was obtained in 0.0027% yield by steam distillation of fresh bud from Medara (Aralia elata Seem. var. subinermis Ohwi), collected from Ashigara-shi in May, 1992. The components of the essential oil were investigated by gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses. Volatile components including 47 monoterpenoids, 11 sesquiterpenoids, and 78 miscellaneous compounds were found present in the essential oil. Characteristic compounds of the essential oil were borneol, 4-terpineol, α and β-pinene, camphene, limonene, (Z) and (E) -2-hexenal, (E) -2-heptenal, (2E, 4E) -2, 4-heptadienal, (E) -2-nonenal, (2E, 4E) -2, 4-nonadienal, (2E, 4E) -2, 4-decadienal, 3- (methylthio) propanal, perillene, 2-ethylfuran, (Z) -jasmone, sabinene hydrate and 4-hexanalide.