In order to predict the characteristic function and/or novel applications of a surfactant, it is useful to examine the solution behavior of the surfactant into water. Relation between solution behavior and emulsifying properties of surfactants with less solubility into water is discussed in this paper. Alkylglycerylether (GE) is a surfactant with 2 hydroxyl groups as a hydrophilic portion and it forms liquid crystal with a reversed hexagonal structure in water. On the other hand, GE is such a characteristic emulsifier that can stabilize an W/O emulsion of extremely high water content. This stabilization is due to the formation of liquid crystal in the interfacial layer between oil and water phase. Thus, emulsifying characteristics of a surfactant is much influenced by the dissolution states in water.
The behavior of surfactant aggregates in solutions was investigated by an ESR spin probe method. The following informations were obtained from analysis of spectra. 1) Two types of micelles were directly observed in commercially available sodium alkyl poly (oxyethylene) ether sulfate-alkyl poly (oxyethylene) ether mixed surfactant solutions. 2) Sodium dodecyl sulfate molecules (2 mM) incorporated into phospholipid bilayers (13.6 mM) formed clusters by themselves, causing phase separation of the bilayers. 3) Sodium 3- dodecyloxypoly (oxyethylene) -1-propane sulfonates interacted with an ESR spin probe even below the cmc. This was explained by the formation of ESR spin probe-induced micelles. 4) Butyl poly (oxypropylene) ether derivatives having polar dissociative functional groups on their terminal hydroxyl groups behaved in a manner similar to a reversed micelle or a W/O microemulsion system and were inverted to an O/W type through a transparent and viscoelastic gel stage with increasing a water content.
The thermal reactions were carried out at 350470 C for 30 min using sodium palmitate (A) and an equimolar mixture of sodium palmitate and sodium hydroxide (B). The reaction products presumed to be formed by the reaction occurring in the vicinity of carboxyl group, particularly, pentadecane, 1-pentadecene, and 16-hentriacontanone (palmitone) were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography. 1-Pentadecene was produced in much larger amount than pentadecane in the reaction of A. Meanwhile, the formation of pentadecane was predominant in the reaction of B, though the amount of 1-pentadecene increased with the elevation of temperature. The formation of palmitone, a condensation product of sodium palmitate with decarboxylation, was notable in the reaction of B. A possible scheme, in which sodium hydroxide plays catalytic role, was proposed for the formation of palmitone in the reaction of B.
Extensive research has been carried out on the effect of poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) on cardio-vascular disease. However, most such studies indicate the quantities of fatty acids in foodstuffs and serum in terms of area percentage. Few reports indicate absolute quantities. The quantitative determination of fatty acid area percentage has been carried out thoroughly while this has yet to be done for their absolute quantities. Also research up to the present is insufficient for clearifying the continuous analytical process as a whole. The present study for determining absolute quantities of fatty acids in serum-containing PUFA using tricosanoic acid as the internal standard, indicated it necessary to extract the total lipids in serum using the Folch procedure without adding butylated hydroxytoluene.
Changes in lipid components during soybean seed (Glycine max.) development were studied to clarify differences in lipid accumulation among three cultivars (Harosoy 63, Enrei and Koitozairai) and also among the individual parts of a seed (cotyledon, hypocotyl and seed coat). 1. Changes in the lipid components of the three cultivars. The dates of flowering and lengths of maturation periods differed among the three cultivars even though they were all planted on the same day. The weight of a hundred seeds and lipid content also differed. Differences in lipid accumulation and in changes of fatty acid composition, sterol content in lipid, and sterol composition among the three cultivars were essentially the same. The cultivars all showed similar accumulation patterns of lipid components, except tocopherol. 2. Changes in the lipid components of cotyledon, hypocotyl and seed coat. (a) Cotyledon : In each case, this part showed a lipid accumulation patterns similar to that of the whole seed and nearly the entire lipid content of the seed was present in the cotyledon. (b) Hypocotyl : The lipid content of this part reached a constant level in the early stage of seed development. The ratio of cis-vaccenic acid to oleic acid was greater in this part than in cotyledon. α-Tocopherol content in the lipid component became quite high in the late stage of seed development. Sterol content in lipid and the percentage of sitosterol were higher in hypocotyl than in cotyledon. They showed little change during seed development. (c) Seed coat : This part showed the complicated changes in fatty acid composition and the ratio of cis-vaccenic acid to oleic acid was high. Sterol content in the lipid was also high. Based on the results of the present study, it became clear that lipid composition and its changes during seed development differ considerably for each part of a seed.
An isotachophoretic method for the simultaneous determination of anionic surfactants and inorganic electrolytes in aqueous solutions was investigated. This method is based on the pH of leading electrolytes, species of terminating ions, species and concentration of viscous agents. The optimum conditions for the simultaneous determination were found to be 5 mM HC1-10-2% HPMC/Trishydroxymethylaminomethane (pH 8.5) as the leading electrolyte and 5 mM β-Alanine/KOH (pH 10.4) as the terminating electrolyte. Isotachophoretis also proved quite useful for the simultaneous determination of detergent ingredients.
The aerobic and anaerobic biodegradations of surfactants were examined by bacteria from sewage sediments. During the biodegradations, CO2 under aerobic conditions, or CO2 and CH4 under anaerobic conditions were determined as the final products of the carbon sources. The relation of structure and biodegradability with the degree of biodegradation was examined. Based on the results obtained the surfactants were classified into three groups : (A) sodium alkyl sulfate (AS), sodium salt of fatty acid (Soap) and alkyl poly (oxyethylene) ether (AE), all biodegradable under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions ; (B) sodium α-olefinsulfonate (AOS), sodium linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) and sodium alkylpoly (oxyethylene) sulfate (AES), all biodegradable under aerobic conditions but less so under anaerobic conditions ; (C) p-alkylphenylpoly (oxyethylene) ether (APE) and sodium alkylphenylpoly (oxyethylene) sulfate (APES). These were extremely resistant to both the aerobic and anaerobic biodegradations.
We prepared a thermodynamically unstable microemulsions in which a droplet does not change in size for over one year. The phase diagram showed these microemulsions to exist in the two-phase region. These microemulsions may be regarded as microemulsions in a broad sense by Rosano. They were obtained by the rapid cooling of the homogeneous phase in nonionic surfactant-oil-water systems, to room temperature. The droplet mean radius was related to the ratio of oil to surfactant by a linear function. The droplet size of these microemulsions can thus be controlled by changing this ratio. The stability of the microemulsions depends on the nature of the oil and surfactant. The stability rises dramatically with increase in the carbon number of the oil. The droplet having liquid paraffin (Lp) or squalane (Sq) undergoes no appreciable change in size for over a year at 25°C.Small quantities of Lp or Sq increase the stability of the unstable microemulsions containing a short chain hydrocarbon oii, The stability of the microemulsions increases with the size of the surfactant molecule. The main cause of instability in such systems thus appears to be related to Ostwald ripening rather than droplet coalescence.
The coagulation and surface adsorbability of styrene/acrylic acid [P (St/AA)], styrene/methyl methacrylate/methacrylic acid [P (St/MMA/MAA)], styrene/acrylamide [P (St/AAm5) and P (St/AAm10), subscripts of 5 and 10 representing the acrylamide fraction in total monomer (wt%)] copolymer latices and polystyrene (PS) latex in aqueous solution of alkyl pyridinium bromides (abbr.APB, CnH2n+1NC5H5Br;n=12 : DPB, n=14 : TPB and n=16 : HPB) and alkyl trimethyl ammonium bromides [abbr.ATAB, CnH2n+1N (CH3) 3Br;n=12 : DTAB, n=14 : TTAB and n=16 : HTAB] were investigated by method of stopped flow and ζ-potential measurement. The distance t from the Stern layer to the slipping plane in the electrical double layer on the latex surface increased with an increase of hydrophilic property of the latex, that is, PS, P (St/AA), P (St/MMA/MAA), P (St/AAm5) and P (St/AAm10) in this order. The surfactant adsorption increased with the hydrocarbon chain length of APB in the order DPB, TPB and HPB, and the adsorption of APB exceeded that of ATAB. Surfactant adsorption onto the latices decreased with increasing distance t, i.e., in the order PS, P (St/AA), P (St/MMA/MAA), P (St/AAm5) and P (St/AAm10). Surfactant concentration for the minimum stability ratio (log W=0) of latex particles corresponded to that of ζ=O of the latex on the ζ-log C (C : surfactant concentration) curve.
Three amphiphilic heptakis (6-alkylamino-6-deoxy) -β-cyclodextrins, (2a) (alkyl=C4H9), (2b) (alkyl=C8H17) and (2c) (alkyl=C12H25) were synthesized. (2b) and (2c) due to their long alkyl chains were readily soluble in chloroform. (2c) was soluble even in benzene. These amines became soluble in water when protonated, and (2b), (2c) showed surface activities with definite cmc values.These amines were also observed to form strong complexes with methyl orange in aqueous buffer solution (pH5.60).
The mixing effect of surfactants an foam formation was studied from the stand point of foam ability, foam stability, surface tension, and surface viscosity. The system investigated was Na, Na-dimethyl-Nε-lauroyllysine (DMLL) -sodium α-olefin sulfonate (AOS). Foam abihty and stability in the DMLL single systems increased with concentration, and became constant above the he critical micelle concentration (cmc). The foam stability of DMLL was greatest near its isoelectric point. The foam ability and stability of AOS solutions were maximum at cmc. In DMLL-AOS mixed systems, when the total concentration was constant below cmc, the foam abilities of mixed solutions at any mixed ratio exceeded those of both single systems and the surface tension of a mixed solution was less than those of single solution. The foam stability of AOS solutions increased somewhat on adding DMLL. The surface viscosity of DMLL/AOS mixed solutions increased with the concentration below cmc. In DMLL-AOS mixed systems, surfactants were found to exert a mixing effect on foam formation.
The coagulation and surface adsorbability of styrene/2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate [P (St/HEMA0.5), P (St/HEMA1), P (St/HEMA2) and P (St/HEMA3), subscripts of 0.5, 1, 2and 3 represented the mol% of total monomer] copolymer lances and polystyrene (PS) latex in aqueous solution of alkyl pyridinium bromides (abbr.APB, CnH2n+1NC5H5Br;n=12 : DPB, n=14 : TPB and n=16 : KPB) were investigated by the stopped flow method and were measured for their ζ-potential. The distance t from the Stern layer to the slipping plane in the electrical double layer on the latex surface increased with the HEMA fraction. The surfactant adsorption decreased with increase in the HEMA fraction, in the order of PS, P (St/HEMA0.5), P (St/HEMA1), P (St/HEMA2) and P (St/HEMA3).The concentration of surfactant on which coagulation occured sifted to higher concentration of surfactant with decreasing surfactant adsorption on the latex, in the order of PS, P (St/HEMA0.5), P (St/HEMA1), P (St/HEMA2) and P (St/HEMA3). The minimum value of the stability ratio (log W) of the latex particles corresponded to the zero point of charge of the latex in the ζ-log C (C : surfactant concentration) curve.
Fumaroyl-3, 3'-bis [(5S) -2-oxo-1, 3-diazabicyclo [3.3.0] octane] (2) was allowed to react with thioacetic, S-acid to give optically active mercaptosuccinic acid. The product was found to have an absolute configuration of (S) -form with a diastereomer ratio of Max.30%.