Studies on the crystal structure of many pure triglycerides by means of X-ray diffraction have been made by several researchers but on polymorphic crystal transformation of triglycerides, especially on fats, many problems are left. Authors made researches in crystal transformation of plastic fats such as tallow, hydrogenated fish oil, binary system of tallow and hydrogenated fish oil, and cocoa butter by X-ray diffraction. Based on the nomenclature by C.W. Hoerr, authors identified four crystal forms α, β' (beta prime), intermediate and β. As tallow and hydrogenated fish oil take the crystal structure of β' and intermediate form, it is possible to determine the approximate proportion of β' form by comparing the intensity of diffraction band at 3.8A which is peculiar. As regards cocoa butter it takes α and β form, and the α directly transforms to β. The proportion of β form, therefore, can be determined in similar manner. Authors graphically presented the relation between transformation of polymorph and tempering of the plastic fats within 240 minutes.
Sodium (or potassium) alkoxy propane sulfonates were prepared from alcohols, which were mainly terpenic alcohols, and propane sultone. Sodium decyloxy propane sulfonate showed a properties for surface active agents, but those from terpenic alcohols did not show the properties.
Authors investigated the reaction of dioctanoyl peroxide with carbon tetrabromide in carbon tetrachloride. In this reaction heptyl radical, produced by the decomposition of dioctanoyl peroxide, scarcely attacked carbon tetrachloride but attacked carbon tetrabromide to give 1-heptyl bromide. The yield of 1-heptyl bromide was 54.1% at the optimum condition (carbon tetrabromide/dioctanoyl peroxide mole ratio 2; concentration of dioctanoyl peroxide in carbon tetrachloride 0.5mol%; reaction temperature 70°C; reaction time 24hr). By-products of this reaction were tetradecane, caprylic acid, heptyl caprylate, bromoform and hexabromoethane.
The property of 101 kinds of surface active agents as internal antistatic agents for resins was studied. Surface active agents were kneadered into resin sheets by extruding. Evaluation was made from the view points of extrudability, thermal stability (discoloring), bleeding out and surface resistivity. Extrudability and bleeding out are closely related to compatibility with plastic resins. Results showed that all water-soluble surface active agents in this experiment had not good compatibility with resins, being very difficult for the incorporation into resins, and even in the case of the minimum concentration added they continued to bleed out until sticky. Thermal stability of amphoteric surface active agents (Na salts) and cationic surface active agents was very inferior, while that of anionic and nonionic surface active agents was good, but the latter had not good antistatic property except amine ethyleneoxide adducts. Neverthless, severe bleeding out of amine ethyleneoxide adducts makes them not commercially available.
Alkyl benzene sulfonate (ABS) was announced to be one of the air pollutants. In fact, it was found that Methylene Blue active substance (MBAS) was detected by Abbott's Methylene Blue method in alcohol extracts of air-dust. Examinations were carried out on the MBAS. Results showed that the MBAS was not due to ABS. An interesting fact was observed by the application of Methylene Blue-anionic surfactant complex on thin layer chromatography (TLC) with silica gel adsorbent : in case of a mixture of chloroform and ethanol (5 : 1) as a solvent, the Rƒ value of the surfactant complex was nearly zero, but the other MBAS (interferences), if present, migrated on the definite Rƒs, in case 99% ethanol as solvent the complex splits into its components and only the surfactant moved in accordance with its specified Rƒ. This fact was applied on colored chloroform-soluble substances obtained from waters by Abbott's method, as an examination method to check the presence of MBAS excluding ABS and to remove them. The proposed TLC-method was found to be an useful method for the determination of ABS in polluted waters and for examination of results obtained by Methylene Blue method.
To study the heat-stabilities of chlorinated fatty materials, authors synthesized chlorinated fatty acids and some of the derivatives for heating tests. The chlorinated samples were heated for 4 hours in N2 gas or air current and in sealed tube under pressure below 1 mmHg. From these results, (1) regular chlorinated materials such as 9 (or 10) -mono-chloro and 9, 10-di-chloro stearic acid and their derivatives were more stable than random coloriated materials, (2) no difference was observed between fatty acids and their derivatives, (3) they coloured more in sealed tube and were more changeable in air current.
Alkylbenzene sulfonate (ABS) concentration in the water of the Tama River was measured at four points along the river. At the points, where the water was heavily contaminated NH3-N concentration was measured together with ABS concentration. It was found that ABS and NH3-N concentrations have been increased year by year. These data showed that the downstream of the Tama River between Futako-bashi and Marukobashi was heavily contaminated by domestic sewage, especially in the drought season.