The hydrophilic moiety of nonionic surfactants is composed primarily of oxyethylene grou ps. From standpoint of biodegradability, safety and renewability of resources, it is preferable to use nonionic surfactants whose hydrophilic portion is derived from pentose, hexose or glycerol. The characteristic properties of nonionic surfactants with hydroxyl groups as the hydrophilic moiety including alkyl glyceryl ethers and alkyl glucosides were studied and compared with those with oxyethylene groups. The major properties of the hydrophilic moiety are lipophobicity and hydrophilicity. Lipophobicity is a particularly important feature of oil soluble surfactants, but high lipophobic solutes are watersoluble in the case of alkyl poly (oxyethylene) ethers. The lipophobicity of the secondary hydroxyl group, >CH (OH), was shown to be about 4.5 times higher than that of the oxyethylene group, CH2CH2O. Although the lipophobicities of dodecyl hexa (oxyethylene) ether and of 3-dodecyloxy -1, 2-propanediol (monoglyceryl-1-dodecyl ether) are essentially the same, the former is water insoluble whereas the latter, oil soluble. Nonionic surfactants with hydroxyl groups thus posses strong hydrophilicity and lipophobicity. The effects of temperature on the solution properties of alkyl glyceryl compounds are much less pronounced than on those of alkyl oligo (oxyethylene) ethers. It is imortant to use them properly according to purposes. In practical applications such as solubilizers, emulsifiers and a detergents, polyol-type surfactants show characteristic properties. The application of these polyol-type surfactants should be broadened.
The effect of metal ions on the solution state of phospholipids was investigated by means of an attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Two peaks corresponding to symmetric and asymmetric stretching vibrations of the methylene groups (hy drophobic groups) in phospholipid molecules were recognized independent of the kind of phospholipids and of solution state (gel and liquid crystal states). When calcium ion was added in L-α-dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) systems, the peak corresponding to the asymmetric stretching mode of the methylene groups at 70°C shifted to lower wavenumbers with increasing molar ratios of the metal ion, which is due to the phase transition from liquid crystal state to gel state. Meanwhile, the addition of metal ions resulted in a dehydration of the phosphate groups (hydrophilic groups) in DPPG molecules. Dehydration caused by the addition of metal ions was in the order calcium ion>magnesium ion>barium ion. It is found that the addition of metal ions resialts in an increase in the dehydration of the phosphate groups and the depression of fluidity in the methylene groups in acidic phospholipid (DPPG) molecules.
The cyclic monoterpenoids karahanaenone (1) and (-) -perillaldehyde (2) were converted to primary amines by a convenient method, followed by succesive reaction to afford objective ureas, amides and amines. (1) was converted to primary amine by oximation with hydroxylamine hydrochloride, and reduction with lithium aluminum hydride (LAH). (2) was converted to primary amine by nitrilation (N, N-dimethylhydrazonation, methylation, and elimination reaction), and reduction with LAH. These primary amine derivatives were finally transformed into ures (3) (5), (10) and (11), amides (6) (8), (12) (16), and amines (9), (17). Fifteen terpene derivatives obtained were tested the efficiency for antimicrobial activity and growth-regurating activity toward plants. As activity of the former toward Bacillus subtilis, Esherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrium and Fusarium oxysporum, N- (1, 8-p-menthadien-7-yl) -N', N'-diethylurea (11) and N- (1, 8-p-menthadien-7-yl) -benzyloxy-methylamide (13) (at 50100 ppm) derived from (2) completely inhibited the growth of B. subtilis and A. niger. As activity of the latter toward Brassica Rapa, N- (1, 8-p-menthadien-7-yl) α-styrylamide (14) at 100 ppm indicated an inhibition of ca. 50 % toward root growth.
The reaction of 2-pinene oxide (1) with methanol in the presence of montmorillonite K10 (K10) catalyst was studied. When K10 calcinated at 200°C was used as catalyst, α-campholenicaldehyde dimethylacetal [(2), 2, 2, 3-trimethyl-3-cyclopenten-1-ylacetaldehyde dimethylacetal] was found to be in high yield obtained under mild conditions. In the reactions of other five oxides [d-limonene-1, 2-oxide (20), 3-carene oxide (21), terpinolene oxide (22), 1-methylcyclohexene oxide (23), styrene oxide (24)] with methanol, methoxyalcohol (Fig.-3) was selectively obtained, respectively.
Vitamin E content in red pepper oleoresin, red pepper powder, and paprika powder was determined by HPLC using a fluorometric detector. After the saponification of samples, α-tocopherol increased significantly, suggesting the presence of esterified α-tocopherol.The acid moiety of esterified α-tocopherol should not be acetate since no α-tocopherly acetate was present inany sample. Total content of α-tocopherol in red pepper, paprika, and related foods should thusbe measured after saponification.
Constituents of essential oil in the leaf and flower of Getto (Alpinia speciosa K. Schum.) were investigated. Their structures were identified by GLC and GC-MS spectroscopy. The characteristic major components were ketones such as namely fenchone (Peak 8), camphor (Peak 9), 4-isopropyl-2-cyclohexene-1-one (Peak 20), 7, 7-dimethylbicyclo [4.1.1] oct-3-one (Peak 21), 7, 7-dimethylbicyclo [4.1.1] oct-2-one (Peak 25), isomer of nezukone (Peak 34), and nezukone (Peak 44). Peaks 21 and 25 could be identified here for the first time from the flower of Getto in nature.