1. To manufacture a lower melting hydrogenated fish oil having a good plasticity even in winter, the effect of dimethyl polysiloxane addition on hydrogenation of refined saucy oil was investigated under normal pressure. 2. The hydrogenation apparatus used was of batch type and made of stainless steel (SUS-27), and agitated by hydrogen blowing. Dimethyl polysiloxane with different M.W. and reduced nickels were used as catalysts and reactions were carried out at 200°C under constant condition of agitation, and catalyst concentration, etc. The weight ratios of the nickel and dimethyl polysiloxane to saury oil used were 0.2wt% and 0.015wt% respectively. 3. Addition of dimethyl polysiloxane to the nickel catalyst for cocatalysing purpose facilitated the control of hydrogenation, in slowing down the rate of hydrogenation as compared with the case without it. 4. The hydrogenated oil by together use of nickel and dimethyl polysiloxane, as compared with that by nickel alone, was much more superior in its consistency at low temperature, solid fat index, and in softening point. 5. Dimethyl polysiloxane of 500c.s. was superior in action than that of 100c.s.
β-sitosteryl ferulate was isolated from rice bran oil. The ferulate was C39H58O4, mp 131131.5°C, [α]589+10.9° (chloroform), εmax. 215mμ 16, 800, εmax. 231mμ 14, 600, εmax. 291mμ 17, 800 and εmax. 315mμ 21, 000 (n-heptane). The ferulate gave the acetate C41H60O5, mp 165166°C, [α]589+3.7°, εmax. 225mμ 15, 600, εmax. 277mμ 20, 200 and εmax. 307.5mμ 11, 300 (n-heptane). By hydrolysis of the ferulate, β-sitosterol and ferulic acid were obtained. β-sitosterol was C29H50O, mp 138138.5°C, [α]589-33° (chloroform). The acetate of β-sitosterol was C31H52O2, mp 134134.5°C, [α]589-41.6° (chloroform), saponification value 123.7 (calculated value 122.8). Ferulic acid was C10H10O4, mp 169.5170.0°C. Infrared spectrum of the ferulic acid was identical with that of the authentic specimen of ferulic acid.
Using synthesized trilinolein, the relations between the foaming tendency after heated and the chemical characteristics were studied. Trilinolein after heated for 5 and 9hr. at 200°C, showed slight and severe foaming tendencies respectively. From trilinolein heated for 5 and 9hrs., monomeric, dimeric and secondary product fractions of fatty acids were separated, and chemical, infrared and thin-layer chromatographic analyses were carried out there of. The number of functional groups in their mean molecular weight were also calcurated. From these results, it was concluded that the substances formed by heating are different in both quantity and nature by the lapse of heating time.
Soybean curd or Tofu and doughnuts were fried and the temperatures of the inside of these foods and of the foams were measured by thermocouple. The temperature of the foams was the same with that of frying oil. Soybean oil were heated for 2, 3 and 4 hours at 240°C in the presence of air. Thus soybean oils of slightly foaming and strongly foaming tendencies were obtained. Their surface tension, oil-water interfacial tension, surface viscosity and viscosity were measured at various temperatures. To measure their surface tension, the Sugden's apparatus based on the bubble pressure method was used. The oil-water interfacial tension was measured with the stalagmometer based on Traube's drop method. The viscosity was measured with BL-viscometer made by Tokyo-Keiki Co. and the surface viscosity was measured with FT rheometer made by Odawara-Tekkojo Co. with a platinum ring in place of the inner tube. Through the above experiments, it seemed that surface tension had no relation with foaming of oil, but surface viscosity and viscosity had a great concern with it.
The effects of anionic surfactants on wool shrinkage were investigated. Wool shrinkage was largest when wool was in sodium salt solution of saturated primary alcohol sulfates at a certain concentration of detergents, in which the concentration was lower than the critical micelle concentration obtained from surface tension. In sodium salt solution of oleyl alcohol sulfate, however, such a phenomenon was not observed, and wool shrinkage became more or less constant when solution concentration was 0.1% and over. Wool shrinkage was smaller when wool was in 0.1% solution of sodium salt of alkyl benzene sulfonate than that in water alone. In the solution of sodium salt of laurate, wool shrinkage was maximum at a concentration around its critical micelle concentration. But in case sodium salt of oleate, no such concentration maximizing the wool shrinkage was observed. Excluding the effect of viscosity, commercial soaps showed nearly a fixed value for wool shrinkage when its concentration was higher than 0.3%.
Epoxide was obtained by the following procedure with 99% yield. Ninty-five per cent hydrogen peroxide (7.2g, 0.2mol) was added dropwise during 1hr to a mixture of 36.4g of butyl oleate (0.1mol), 17.6g of benzene, 6.0g of acetic acid, and 1.9g of 50% sulfuric acid, at temperatures of 5060°C. Immediately after addition of all of the hydrogen peroxide, the reaction mixture was poured into water, and the epoxide was extracted with petroleum ether. The product obtained was colorless, and had a purity of 92.7%. The purity was better than that of the product obtained by use of peroxyacetic acid. Epoxides of oleic acid and butyl ester of tall oil fatty acid was also obtained by the above mentioned procedure. The latter had a purity of 90.8%, but the former had only 60.4%.