It is necessary to know the details of mechanical action in washing process of textile fabrics for obtaining better effect. Several factors of intricacy in analysis of washing process depend on the peculiar geometrical structure of textile fabrics. Relation between liquid flow behavior and pore structure of twelve sorts of fabrics was examined. It was confirmed that permeation of water and n-hexane in these fabrics is expressed in principle by modified by Poiseille's law and penetration of both fluids by Washburn's equation. The caluculated pore radiis by experimental data of permeation and of penetration are balanced with pore radius determined by mercury intrusion method. The cause of mutual little discrepancy in the caluculated pore radii and the constant of velocity gradient m between these fluids was discussed.
Semipolar organo boron surfactants which had structure as a hydrophilic group were synthesized from polyols having vicinal OH radicals, lower alcohol triborate and several fatty acids._??_ They are usually nonionic, but converted into anionics by rearrangement in a basic medium. Thus obtained surfactants have superior surface active properties than monoglycerides and alkanoyl glyceryl acid borates.
N- Trimethylaminealkanesulfonimides (1-R-S) and N-alkyl-dimethylaminemethanesulfonimides (R-1-S), R : n-C12H25 and n-C16H33, were derived from 1, 1-dimethyl- or 1-alkyl-1-methyl-hydrazine. Their properties were compared with those of the corresponding amineimides, (1-R) and (R-2). On NMR spectra of the ylides, the chemical shift for methyl or methylene groups adjacent to the positive nitrogen was 3.4ppm relative to TMS. For amineimides, it was 3.203.29ppm. On IR spectra, S-O frequencies of the aminesulfonimides were lowered by 60100cm-1 in comparison with those of the corresponding hydrazines or hydrazinium salts. This frequency fall is probably due to a delocalization of the negative charge on the nitrogen, similar to that operating in amineimides. But the degree of this fall was larger than that for amineimides. The aqueous solution was neutral and showed a low electric conductivity, analogous to those of amineimides. The comparison of their properties among the four types of ylides having the same alkyl groups gave the following results : mp, 1-R-S>R-1-S>1-R>R-2; Krafft point, R-1-S>1-R-S>1-R>R-2; cmc, 1-R-S<R-1-S<R-2<1-R; surface tension above cmc, R-1-S<1-R-S<1-R<R-2. Foaming and penetrating powers were also measured.
A stable W/O type emulsion of aqueous sorbitol solution (20wt%) -liquid paraffin system stabilized with Arlacel 186 (a mixture of mono-, di-, and triolein) is obtained. By the aid of HLB-temperature method, it was shown that Arlacel 186 is a suitable emulsifier for this system. This paper deals the procedure in selecting stable emulsifier for W/O type emulsion by HLB-temperature method adopting the above exemplified system.
Some fundamental factors influencing on the gas chromatographic analysis of the fatty acid composition of soybean oil were studied. A gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector and an integrator was used. Three glass columns were prepared which were packed respectively with 7.5%, 10% and 20% of diethylene glycol succinate on 100200 mesh Chromosorb W AW DMCS. The bleeding of the liquid phase was negligible during the operation for 185hr on 7.5% column and 200hr on 10% and 20% columns. Of the three columns, 20% DEGS column was found most suitable for the analysis of fatty acid composition of soybean oil. Relative mass response factors of methyl linoleate and linolenate to methyl stearate were 1.00 when 20% DEGS column was used. It was also found that the proper sample size of 1 or 2% (wt/vol) n-hexane solution of a methyl ester mixture from soybean oil for the gas chromatographic analysis is 2μl.