油化学
Online ISSN : 1884-2003
ISSN-L : 0513-398X
41 巻 , 4 号
選択された号の論文の11件中1~11を表示しています
  • 小山内 州一, 山村 朝雄, 岡田 知巳, 吉川 貞雄
    1992 年 41 巻 4 号 p. 293-300
    発行日: 1992/04/20
    公開日: 2010/01/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    光学活性及びラセミ体の2鎖型カチオン両親媒化合物, (2RS) -, (2S) -N'- (2, 3-diacyloxypropyl) -N, N, N, N', N'-pentamethyl ethylenediammonium diiodide, を合成し, これらの化合物の表面張力, 表面圧, 転移温度等の集合挙動が光学異性によってどのような影響を受けるか検討した。透過型電子顕微鏡により水溶液中でのモルフォロジーを観察し, MLVやSMVがそれらの試料調製法によって生じることが認められた。DSCによるTcの測定結果, 光学活性体がより高いTcを示すことが認められた。また表面圧測定において, 光学活性体が同一な面積/分子値において高い表面圧を示した。
    これらの結果は, 両親媒化合物が水中にて集合する際にそのキラリティが配向を制御し上に述べた差異が生じたものと考えられる。
  • 益山 新樹, 廣野 高生, 朱 云鵬, 岡原 光男, Milton J. ROSEN
    1992 年 41 巻 4 号 p. 301-305
    発行日: 1992/04/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    N-アルキルタウリン (アルキル基 : オクチル, デシル, ドデシル) とエチレングリコールジグリシジルエーテルの反応により, 2つのタウリン骨格を有する二鎖型界面活性化合物を合成した。これらはすべて水に溶解し, クラフト点は0℃以下であった。臨界ミセル濃度は, 対応する一鎖型タウリン化合物に比べてはるかに低濃度であった。2本のオクチル基を有する表題化合物の等電点は約5.0であり, 等電点付近のpH条件下でも水溶性は保持された。溶液のpH値の変化や電解質の添加に伴い, これらの二鎖型化合物の界面活性能がどのように変化するかについても検討した。
  • 和中 康, 無類井 建夫
    1992 年 41 巻 4 号 p. 306-311
    発行日: 1992/04/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    A simple and highly sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method for determining sterols in edible oils and fats is presented. Sterols were isolated from a few miligrams of sample by saponification or thin layer chromatography. They were subsequently converted into the corresponding fluorescent derivatives by heating with 9-anthroylnitrile at 100°C for 30 min in the presence of triethylamine. The derivatives were separated on a reversed phase column (Senshu pak ODS-1250-Y) with an isocratic elution using acetonitrile-dichloromethane (75/25, vol/vol). The detection limit for cholesterol was about 80 pg. The present method was shown applicable to the determination of total, free and acylated sterols in edible oils and fats with satisfactory reliability, sensitivity and handling.
  • 田中 幸久, 船田 正, 村山 弥, 小菅 康孝
    1992 年 41 巻 4 号 p. 312-316
    発行日: 1992/04/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Hydrolyzed mixtures, derived from fish oil and containing free fatty acid, monoglyceride, diglyceride, and triglyceride, with hydrolysis rates about 30, 45, 60, 75 %, respectively, were applied to CPC to concentrate polyunsaturated fatty acids. Two solvents, n-hexane and acetonitrile, were used to fractionate hydrolyzed mixtures by CPC. In each case, the recovery of fractionated components exceeded 90%. In some reversed descending fractions, over 80 % of the fatty acid component consisted of icosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). More than 90 % of EPA and DHA was recovered in the reversed descending fractions. The concentrations of EPA and DHA in the reversed descending fractions increased with hydrolysis rate.
  • 多賀谷 久子, 東辻 健, 谷沢 好美, 土川 直美
    1992 年 41 巻 4 号 p. 317-324
    発行日: 1992/04/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Paper chromatography was conducted for examination of the physico-chemical effects of detergents for removing water insoluble soils on fiber assemblies without mechanical and/or hydrodynamic force. Using cellulose filter paper as the fiber assembly for the fixed phase and C.I. Disperse Blue 3 as a model of water insoluble soil, the relation between Rf' and the concentrations of surface active agents was examined.
    The Rf', a measure of detergency, increased steeply near a critical micellar concentration of each surface active agent. In such a case, the longer the chain length of the alkyl group in the alkylsulfate, the lower was the concentration necessary to increase Rf' to give higher detergency. In dodecyl poly (oxyethylene) ethers, the shorter the chain length of the oxyethylene group, the lower was the concentration needed to increase Rf'. On adding NaCl to an aqueous solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), the SDS concentration required to increase Rf' was lowered by the builder effect. Ionic surface active agents showed lower Rf' at higher temperature, while nonionic agents showed higher Rf' at high temperature.
    By application of a theoretical equation to pseudophase liquid chromatography, the detergency of Disperse Blue 3 as a model of soils could be explained on the basis of the solubilization mechanism.
  • 渡辺 紀子, 矢部 章彦
    1992 年 41 巻 4 号 p. 325-329
    発行日: 1992/04/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Spherical particles of hydrated iron (III) oxide were prepared by the interfacial reaction method and their adhesion to polyester staple fibers was investigated in n-heptane/n-tetradecane mixtures.
    The systems reached equilibrium after 48 h under weak oscillation in an incubator at various temperatures (15, 35, and 55°C).
    In this study, typical Langmuir type isotherms were obtained in the soiling systems, instead of Freundlich type isotherms as nonuniform particles/cloth in the previous report.
    Langmuir type adhesion was found to be exothermic in alkane mixtures.
    Affinity parameters in n-heptane/n-tetradecane mixtures decreased with increasing ratio of n-tetradecane to n-heptane, and hence with increasing surface tension of dispersing medium.
  • 野村 正人, 藤原 義人, 広川 隆志, 大坪 英二
    1992 年 41 巻 4 号 p. 330-335
    発行日: 1992/04/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    (2, 2, 3-Trimethylcyclopent-3-en-1-yl) acetaldehyde (1) was obtained by thermal decomposition of (+) -2-pinene oxide in the presence of synthetic zeolites. (1) was used as a material for the synthesis of new aromatic chemicals. The synthesis of 14 novel perfumes was carried out by introducing of functional groups as -CN, -OH, > C=O, and -COOH into (1) and the products were evaluated by professional perfumers with respect to adequacy as a perfume base. (+) -3- (2, 2, 3-Trimethylcyclopent-3-en-1-yl) propan-2-one (3) was found to be of the odor to jasmine note type derived from (+) - (2, 2, 3-trimethylcyclopent-3-en-1-yl) acetnitrile (2). α, β-Unsaturated carboxylic acid, (+) -4- (2, 2, 3-trimethylcyclopent-3-en-1-yl) -trans-2-butenoic acid (7) was of the odor to sweet sheet type. (+) -5- (2, 2, 3-Trimethylcyclopen t-3-en-1-yl) -2-methylpentan-4-ol (11), prepared by Grignard reagent addition, was of the odor to mint note type. These products were found suitable as perfume bases.
  • 中間 康成, 山口 道広
    1992 年 41 巻 4 号 p. 336-340
    発行日: 1992/04/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The adsorption of cationic surfactans onto keratin powder was studies to determine differences in alkyl chain length (C10C18). The adsorption isotherms of C10C14 cationics were of the Langmuir-type. Those of C16 and C18 cationics showed much stronger interaction with keratin powder than those of C10C14 cationics. Irreversible adsorption was also observed in the former. The kinetic frictional coefficient of keratin powder-adsorbed C10C18 cationics was measured. For C16 and C18 cationics, the values were less than those of C10C14 cationics. The amount of saturated adsorption, the sum of both hydrophobic and irreversible adsorption, increased in the order :
    C14>C16, C18>C12>C10.
    The antibacterial capacity of cationic surfactants against Staphylococcus aureus was assessed and interactions between cationic surfactants and ovalbumin were studied. The results in each case were found to be related to saturated adsorption. C14 showed the highest activity toward Staphylococcus aureus, ovalbumin and keratin powder regarless of the type of protein.
  • 日比野 英彦, 海野 麻未, 高島 瑞夫, 西川 徹, 野田 恭平, 高橋 清久
    1992 年 41 巻 4 号 p. 341-346
    発行日: 1992/04/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Although clinical attempts have been made to treat patients with senile dementia using phosphatidylcholine (PC) or acetylcholine (Ach) esterase inhibitors to restore central cholinergic transmission by increasing Ach contents in the brain, definite positive results have yet to be obtained. To investigate further the influence of the systemic administration of PC on brain Ach, we measured choline (Cho) and Ach contents in discrete brain regions of rat by HPLC with an electrochemical detector, following an acute administration of PC. Cho contents increased in the frontal cortex, striatum and substantia innomimata after acute intraperitoneal administration of soybean PC in liposome form. Cho contents were not affected in any region after acute injection of egg PC. Ach contents were not affected significantly in any brain region after acute administration of each PC substance. It thus follows that Cho contents increase by the systemic administration of highly purified PC, and PC may possibly pass the blood brain barrier. However, PC administration is not capable of accelerating Ach synthesis in the brain.
  • 真鳥 美輪, 櫛田 靖, 足立 修一, 太田 安英
    1992 年 41 巻 4 号 p. 347-348
    発行日: 1992/04/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The fatty acid specificity of a lipase in the hydrolysis of natural oils and fats can be expressed by the following equation. The hydrolysis rate Hi of a fatty acid i in a fat is Hi= (fi/foi) ×H, where fi and foi are the molar fractions of fatty acid i in hydrolyzed fatty acids and that in unhydrolyzed fat, respectively. H is thus the hydrolysis rate of fat by lipase. Sardine oil was hydrolyzed by a microbial lipase and the results are presented graphically.
  • J. P. WOLFF, F. X. MORDRET, A. DIEFFENBACHER
    1992 年 41 巻 4 号 p. 349-353
    発行日: 1992/04/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The development by collaborative study of a standardized method for the determination of composition of triglycerides in vegetable oils in terms of their partition numbers (or equivalent carbon numbers : ECN) by high performance liquid chromatography is described. The procedure involves the preparation of an oil sample solution, the injection in the HPLC chromatograph, the separation of triglycerides using a reversed phase polarity column and detection with an appropriate system (e.g. refractive index detector). The method allows separation triglycerides into groups of identical partition numbers and the the calculation of their relative contents.
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