The interaction between fabric and soil in detersive systems was elucidated by applying principal component analysis to data obtained in laundering cotton, nylon, polyester, and wool fabrics soiled with liquid paraffin, squalene, olive oil, lanolin, and palmitic acid, respectively, with thirteen different detergents under various bath conditions. This analysis gives a meaningful summary of the original data, and concludes that only four components are required to represent the detergency by the twenty soiled fabrics; and that fabric type is a dominant factor and the geometric relationship between fabric and soil is one of the most important factors governing detersive systems. The geometric factor is ascribed to “micro-occlusion” due to the entrapment of particles in the irregularities of the fiber surfaces. The soiled fabrics are plotted in a two dimensional space as a fabric-soil field mapping
The oxidative decomposition of dl-α-tocopherol (α-Toc) and the formation of its dimer during the course of thermal oxidation of trilaurin and of trilinolein was studied. Triglycerides, in which α-Toc dissolved in the concentration o 5%, were oxidized with air in an oil bath controlled at 150±1°C or 180±1°C under the condition of specific surface area 0.5 cm2g. Two oxidation products were obtained from the reaction mixture by the chromatography on a silicic acid column eluted with n-hexane -diethyl ether mixtures (Fig.-4). The product [II], which is the main oxidation product, was identified as the dimer of α-Toc, 1, 2-bis- (γ-tocopherol-5'-yl) -ethane, by means of UV absorption, IR absorption, NMR and mass spectroscopy (Table-2). This compound was also confirmed by TLC and high-speed liquid chromatography (HSLC) of the reaction mixture (Figs.-1 and 2). Furthermore, it was assumed that the yellow substance in fraction 7 (product [I]) is 5-formyl-γ-tocopherol-3-ene, from the results of TLC and HSLC of this fraction (Figs.-5 and 6). The decrease of α-Toc concentration and the formation of its dimer during the course of thermal oxidation was followed by HSLC. The decrease of α-Toc concentration at 180°C was more rapid than that at 150°C, but the difference between the rate of decrease in trilaurin and that in trilinolein was not so remarkable (Fig.-7). On the other hand, a conspicuous formation of the dimer in trilaurin at 150°C was observed, and the amount of the dimer in the reaction mixture reached to maximum by the oxidation for 5 hours. Smaller amount of the dimer formed in the oxidation product in trilinolein than in that in trilaurin (Fig.-8).
The antioxidant activities of dl-α-tocopherol (α-T), d-γ-tocopherol (γ-T), and d-δ-tocopherol (δ-T) were determined in methyl linoleate free from natural antioxidants and metals. The relative antioxidant activities of tocopherols, at the equivalent mole concentration, were in the order α-<γ<δ-T as generally recognized. In this study, the parts of tocopherols effectively used as antioxidants were merely 13% for α-T, 46% for γ-T, and 77% for δ-T. Tocopherols added to methyl linoleate were absolutely consumed during the induction period, and the consumption rate was in the order α-> γ->δ-T. The rate of the formation of tocopheroxyl radicals was in the order α->γ->δ-T. In the experiments oxidizing tocopherols by PbO2, etc., the mobility of hydroxyl hydrogen of tocopherols and the stability of tocopheroxyl radicals were in the order α-> γ->δ-T. These data showed that the ability as hydrogen donors was in the order α->γ->δ-T. However, tocopherols were consumed by direct air oxidation in the order α-> γ->δ-T. These results suggest that superior hydrogen donors are not always excellent antioxidants. Because, the substituent effect of antioxidants, as shown in tocopherols, can increase not only the ability of antioxidant as hydrogen donor but also the unstability of antioxidant against air.
The study of antioxidant effects on the autoxidation products of substrates is very important in elucidating the autoxidation reaction mechanism. In this report, the antioxidant effects of tocopherols on the autoxidation products of methyl linoleate were discussed. Results from analyses of the various autoxidation products from linoleate samples with and without tocopherols showed that the addition of tocopherols did not alter the original autoxidation mechanism of methyl linoleate. However, tocopherols did retard the formation of autoxidation products, derived from methyl linoleate samples, according to their individual antioxidant activities. Therefore, that the antioxidant activities of tocopherols were in the order of α-<γ-<δ-T did not result from the difference of the autoxidation products among methyl linoleate samples with and without added tocopherols.
The adsorptivities of octadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (OTAC) on various activated carbons from aqueous solutions were investigated and the following results were obtained. 1) The obtained adsorption isotherms apparently were of the Langmuir type. 2) The occupied area (Sm) and Langmuir's constant (a) decreased with increasing the mean pore size of activated carbon. 3) The amounts of adsorption increased with increasing pH of the solution. 4) With the decrease in activation temperature of activated carbon, the effect of pH on adsorption of OTAC on the activated carbon increased. 5) The effect of the anion of coexisting electrolyte on adsorption was much larger than that of the cation, and this order followed the lyotropic series.
Some EDTA-bis (N-alkylimides) were synthesized by the reaction of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with hexyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl, undecyl and dodecyl amines. The hydrolysis of the imides gave the corresponding EDTA-bis (N-alkylamides). Some metal chelates were obtained by the reaction of these amides with Fe (III), Cu (II), Zn (II), Ni (II), Co (II) and Al (III) nitrates. The presumed formulas of the chelates are as follows : [Fe (OH) A (H2O)2], [CuA], [ZnA], [NiA], [CoA (H2O)2], [Al (OH) A (H2O)], where A is a ligand anion formed from EDTA-bis (N-alkylamides) by the elimination of 2H+. These chelates were soluble in some organic solvents, but did not dissolve in water. Some metal chelates had superior dispersing power for TiO2 pigment in organic solvent. For instance, the 0.025% toluene-butanol (20 : 1) solution (about 30 ml) of EDTA-bis (N-dodecylamide) nickel chelate needed 128 h for complete sedimentation of dispersed 0.3 g TiO2 (Rutile type, having no treated surface), while the solvent (containing no chelate) needed only 0.5h for the same sedimentation experiment.
The fluoroalcohol-ethylene oxide (1 : 1, 1 : 3, and 1 : 5) adducts having different constitutions, have been prepared by the addition reaction of ethylene oxide (EO) to fluoroalcohols in the presence of a base or an acid catalyst. The adducts obtained were distilled in vacuo and their surface activities-surface tension, emulsifying power, and foaming properties-were measured. The effect of the different structures of starting alcohols and the number of EO moles added on the surface active properties were clarified.