In the analysis of the phospholipid mixtures which contained phosphatidyicholine, cardiolipin, phosphatidylethanolamine, sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine, the relative responses for quantitative thin layer chromatography combined with a hydrogen flame ionization detector (thinchrography) represented a good coincidence with the theoretical responses based on weight per cent. Meanwhile, it was also found that the thinchrograph is a useful tool for the estimation of the relative amounts of nonpolar lipid to polar lipid or neutral lipid to phospholipid and glycolipid in the total lipid extract.
New type Polybasic acids containing either ether linkages or ether and hydroxyl groups were prepared from glycerol, diglycerol, triglycerol and tetraglycerol. The polybasic acids were synthesized by the reaction of the corresponding alcohols with ethyl diazoacetates, monochloroacetic acid or acrylonitrile. And their building performances detergency were compared with those of disodium oxadiacetate (ODA) -Na and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) in a sysem formulating alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). The detergency were tested on naturally soiled cotton patches and the detergency powers were evaluated by Scheffe's method. From the results summarized in Fig.-1, it is evident that a building performance of the tetrasodium salt of diethyl 5, 9-bis (ethoxycarbonylmethoxy) -3, 7, 11-trioxatridecanedioate (VIII) n=2 was similar to that of STPP, and a building performance of pentasodium salt of diethyl 5, 9, 13-tris (ethoxycarbonylmethoxy) -3, 7, 11, 15-tetraoxaheptadecanedioate (VIII) n=3 and trisodium salt of tris (ethoxycarbonylmethyl) glycerol (VIII) n=1 was slightly superior to that of disodium salt of oxadiacetic acid (ODA). But the corresponding polypropionates did not show the good building power. In comparison with the large biodegradability of disodium oxadiacetate (96.44%), the biodegradabilities of these sequestrant builders were rather poor : (VIII) n=2-Na ; 6.6O%, (VIII) n=1-Na ; 8.35%
Average molecular weights and molecular distributions of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a byproduct in ethylene oxide adduct nonionic surfactants (EO-SAA) were studied by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Every PEG were perfectly separated from various EO-SAA through the reversed-phase column chromatography. Standard PEG (n=5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10) were isolated from the commercial PEG 300 by recycle GPC and the purities of them were identified by GC. Average molecular weights per 1 Å of them were found to be calculated as 24 by making that of polystylene as 41. By using this value, the chromatograms of each PEG, the calibration curve of standard polystylene and a curve-reader CPU system, the average molecular weights of PEG in EO-SAA could be easily determined. The average molecular weights of isolated PEG in EO-SAA of ether type were shown to be almost constant values, while those in ester type were dependent on the EO molecular numbers of the original EO-SAA. The values of those in Tween type EO-SAA coincided with those of the average 20 molecular numbers of EO-SAA of ester type. Further, the molecular distributions of various commercial PEG were also presented in this paper.
Antifoaming properties of new branched 1, 2 -glycols were observed for three foaming systems containing anionic, cationic or nonionic surfactants as foaming agents. The olefin dimers were prepared from C5-C12 1-olefins in the presence of triethylaluminum, and the resulting 2-alkylolefins were hydroxylated with performic acid and strong base to prepare new glycols : 2-propylheptane-1, 2-diol (10 D), 2-butyloctane-1, 2-diol (12 D), 2-hexyldecane-1, 2-diol (16 D), 2-octyldodecane-1, 2-diol (20 D) and 2-decyltetradecane-1, 2-dial (24 D). For the aqueous solution of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, benzylhexadecyldimethylammonium chloride or p-nonylphenyl poly (oxyethylene) ether (n=15) as foaming agents, the antifoaming powers of these glycols were evaluated by the Ross and Miles method. The results were expressed as immediate reading of foam height and reading of foam height after 5 min as a function of concentration of glycols (Fig.-16). Glycols showed their excellent foam inhibiting properties, especially 20 D. The antifoaming powers of the new glycols decreased in the order of 20 D>24 D>12 D>10 D>16 D.
6-Methyl-5-hepten-2-one (MH), a useful intermediate for the synthesis of terpenes and vitamines, was prepared by aqueous-organic and solid organic two-phase reactions of NaOH or KOH, acetone, and 1-chloro-3-methyl-2-butene (prenyl chloride, PC). Quaternary ammonium and phosphonium halides were used as phase-transfer catalysts in aqueous NaOH-organic two-phase reactions ; among these, tetra-n-butylammonium bromide was found to be the most effective catalyst. The yield of MH depended mainly on the structure of the catalyst, acetone/PC and NaOH/PC ratio, and the best yield was 52%. 18-Crown-6 and dibenzo-18-crown-6 were found to promote solid KOH-organic two-phase reactions, but were ineffective in aqueous KOH-organic reaction.
Various 1, 4-diketones were prepared from carboxylic acids via two steps : Grignard reaction with vinylmagnesium chloride and oxidation with Jones reagent catalysed by mercuric propionate. For example, 2, 5-undecanedione was prepared from heptanoic acid via 1-undecen-5-one.