Five groups of weanling male rats were fed diets containing 20 % (by weight) of lard, its blend with palm olein (L/PO) and randomized oils (E-lard, E-L/PO), or soybean oil as the control, for 28 d. Comparative studies were made on liver microsomal enzyme activity related to the synthesis and parabolism of cholesterol, as well as cholesterol and its metabolites in the tissues and feces, and the physical and chemical properties of the dietary fats. SFC curves showed the randomization of lard to hardly change in plasticity. Blending palm olein to lard showed faster melting behavior with rise in temperature, although there was greater hardness at about 5°C. Randomization of the blend resulted in analogous plasticity to lard. No significant differences in serum total and HDL-cholesterol concentrations could be detected among lard, E-lard, L/PO. E-L/PO and soybean oil groups. In all but the soybean oil group, most fatty acids excreted into feces were C16 : 0 and C18 : 0. They were relatively rich in dietaryfats, but the excretion of C16 : 0 was apparently inhibited, probably due to the unique triacylglycerol structure of lard, whose C16 : 0 preferentially occupies the 2-position. Microscopic observation of a cross section of liver indicated fatty droplets to be distributed more thickly in a region surrounding the porta than other regions in the soybean oil group. In the other 4 groups distribution was essentially the same. The excretion of cholesterol and its metabolites into feces was significantly higher in the soybean oil group, but almost the same in the other 4 groups. However, the ratio of total metabolites/cholesterol was basically the same in all groups. The activities of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and cholesterol 7 α-hydroxylase in liver microsomes with respect to a rate limiting enzyme of cholesterol-synthesis and parabolism, did not differ significantly among the 5 groups. The effects of lard, its blend with palm olein, and their randomized oils on cholesterol metabolism were thus concluded essentially the same as those of soybean oil.
The correlation between electrokinetic behavior and rheological phenomena of a highly concentrated coal water mixture (CWM) in the presence of a polyelectrolyte (sodium polystyrene sulfonate; PSS-Na) was studied by usual electrophoretic method and colloid vibration potential (CVP) technique. ζ-Potential determined by usual electrophoretic method was found not to be closely correlated to the viscosity of the CWM slurry. The structure of the electrical double layer around coal particles changes by dilution due to variation in the concentration of free polymer and eluted ions from the coal is the reason for this. ζ-potential determined by the colloid vibration potential technique was shown to have goodcorrelation with the viscosity of the slurry over a wide range of volume fraction of coal particles, when the conductivity of dispersed medium was maintained constant after dilution. At a constant volume fraction (φ=0.24), a certain value of PSS-Na additive maximized the ζ-potential of each sample. This was because the additive functioned as a counter ion for the surface charge of particles following saturated adsorption and thereby reducing the ζ-potential of the particles.
The influence of polyelectrolytes on the theological behavior of a coal water mixture (CWM) was studied electrokinetically. Three polyelectrolytes were used, sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSS-Na), (sodium naphthalene sulfonate) formaldehyde condensate (NSF-Na) and (sodium styrene sulfonate) maleate copolymer (SSMA-Na). The viscosity of CWM was lowest when using PSS-Na as the dispersant. The molecular weight and degree of sulfonation of PSS-Na was optimized since PSS-Na increased the charge on coal particles where the degree of adsorption is lower than other polyelectrolytes. ζ-pontential of coal particles determined by CVP was found correlated to optimal molecularweight (Mw=15000) by which CWM viscosity was minimized. Viscosity of CWM increased, there was little change in ζ-potential with decreasing sulfonation. Coal particles thus appear to be bridged by the PSS-Na since PSS-Na with lessen sulfonation showed greater affinity foward coal particles.
Molecualr interactions between saturated and unsaturated phospholipids in a mixed monolayer and a mixed bilayar were investigated in terms of surface pressure, surface viscosity, micropolarity, and ζ-potential. The DSPC single monolayer formed a condensed monolayer, while the DOPC or DLPC single monolayer formed an expanded layer. Collapse pressure for the single monolayer decreased with an increase in the degree of unsaturation in the unsaturated phsopholipid. Each phospholipid mixed monolayer formed an expanded monolayer collaspe pressure for the mixed monolayer of phospholipids was independent of the molar ratio of the unsaturated phospholipid. The surface viscosity of the single and mixed monolayer increased with a decrease in area per molecule of phospholipid. The micropolarity and surface change density of the mixed (liposomes) decreased with increase in the concentration and/or degree of unsaturation of the unsaturated phospholipid. The miscibility of the saturated phospholipid with the one unsaturated was shown to be low in the monolayer and bilayer.
In this study, a novel application photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) was examined in vitro percutaneous absorption. Various aliphatic compounds were used as model samples. In vitro percutaneous absorptiometry was conducted by applying model samples to the skin of a hairless pig. Decrease in the amount of drug applied to a membrane could be measured by the PAS method. The percutaneous absorption rate when using ESCALLOL-557 was found to be 0.101 mg/h in the drug side and that in the pig skin side, 0.117 mg/h. The amount of drug which penetrated the pig skin as determined by the PAS method agreed with the isotope measurement. The diffusion mechanism in this experimental system was penetration diffusion ; the diffusion coefficient was 10-5 cm2/h, which was consistent with that found by Flynn. The present results demonstrated the usefulness of this novel percutaneous absorptiometry in conjunction with the PAS method.
Triicosapentaenoyl (EPA-TG) and tridocosahexaenoyl glycerols (DHA-TG) were prepared by lipase TOYO (Chromobacterium viscosum) -catalyzed esterification. The FFAs (EPA and DHA) reacted with glycerol in the presence of a lipase solution to give a mixture of acylglycerols whose unreacted hydroxyl groups were subsequently esterified by the corresponding acids in the presence of the immobilized lipase on celite. 100 % of DHA-TG and 92 % of EPA-TG were obtained under optimal conditions.
A series of glycosphingolipids containing galactose was purified from the earthworm, Pheretima hilgendorfi by DEAE-and QAE-Sephadex, Florisil, and Iatrobeads column chromatography. From structural studies including compositional sugar analysis, methylation analysis, chromium trioxide oxidation, enzymatic hydrolysis, 1H-and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, their structures were determined to be as follows : Gal β1-Cer, Gal β1-6 Gal β1-Cer, and Gal β1-6 Gal β1-6 Gal β1-Cer. The ceramide moiety was composed of octadecasphingenine and its branched homologue as the main sphingoids, and saturated C22-, C23-, and C24-acid as the major fatty acids. Thin-layer chromatography and the results of sugar analysis indicated the structures of two minor components of the ceramide mono-and trihexoside fractions to be Glc-Cer and Man-Gal-Gal-Cer, respectively.
A mixture of dehydroabietic acid (DHAA, RCOOH), phenol, and phosphoryl chloride was heated to give phenyl dehydroabietate in 83 % yield. In the reactions of cresols with DHAA under the same conditions, the yields of tolyl dehydroabietates increased with in the distance between methyl and hydroxyl group. p- MeC6H4O (O) CR> m-MeC6H4O (O) CR> o- MeC6H4O (O) CR In the reactions of o-cresol, o-isopropylphenol and 2, 6 di-t-butylphenol with DHAA, the yield of corresponding ester increased with the bulkyness of substituent at ortho-position of phenols. 2, 6-di-t- BuC6H4O (O) CR >o- iso- PrC6H4O (O) CR> o- MeC6H4O (O) CR In the reaction of p-methyl, p-chloro and p-nitrophenols with DHAA, the yields of corresponding esters depended on the electron-donating ability of the substituent and showed the following order ; p-MeC6H4O (O) CR>p-ClC6H4O (O) CR> p-NO2C6H4O (O) CR The corresponding esters were obtained in higher yields in reaction of phenol, m-cresol, and 2, 6-di-t-butylphenol with DHAA compared to reaction of these phenols with homo DHAA.
Ethyl [1-13C] -bromoacetate was synthesized by the bromination of [1-13C] -acetic acid and subsequent EtOH treatment. Reaction of ethyl [1-13C] -bromoacetate and phytone in the presence of zinc under ultrasonic conditions gave ethyl [1-13C] -3-hydroxy-3, 7, 11, 15-tetramethylhexadecanoate (5) in 57 % yield. Compound (5) was converted quantitatively to the 1, 3-diol whose condensation with trimethyl hydroquinone gave (2 RS, 4′ R, 8′ R) -α-tocopherol. (2 RS, 4′R, 8′ R) -α- [4-13C] -tocopheryl acetate was obtained by treating the tocopherol with acetic anhydride and pyridine.