The homogeneous hydrogenation of cottonseed oil in n-hexane by using a binary catalyst system of Ziegler type, nickel acetylacetonate (Ni (acac) 2) and triethylaluminium (Et3Al), was performed at low temperatures down to -20°C where saturated or less soluble glycerides crystallized out of the reacting solution. Although so low temperature hydrogenation was somewhat difficult because of the lower reaction temperature and consequent less catalyst activity, authours have successfully made it as follows : 1) For 50g of refined cottonseed oil and 160g of n-hexane solution, an Al/Ni ratio 6 catalyst was used which containing Ni (acac) 2 0.23×10-2mole and Et3Al 1.46×10-2mole. 2) The temperature of the reaction mixture was held at 20°C for the first 5 minutes of the reaction (prereduction treatment), then was cooled to a certain temperature as rapid as possible, thereafter the reaction was carried out at that definite temperature. 3) Hydrogen gas was introduced in at the rate of 500ml/min under atmospheric pressure.
Among the browning reaction of various foods, the Maillard reaction has been studied extensively and it is known that the reaction products show antioxidative activity. In the previous papers, the authors observed that the easy formation of metal-protein complex and iron-fatty acid complex, and those complex thus formed did not promote the rancidity of oil. In this paper the relation between the binding ability of melanoidin (M) and metal and characteristics of M-metal complex was investigated. M prepared from a mixture of glycine and D-xylose by heating at 100°C for 5hr, was fractionated by Sephadex G 25 or thin-layer chromatography (TLC). M and fractionation components with Sephadex G 25 and TLC were reacted at 50°C with some inorganic metals (copper sulfate, ferrous chloride, zinc nitrate and magnesium chloride). The precipitated complex was separated by centrifugation, and the amount of adduct formed with those materials, and metal content in those complex, and IR spectrum and TLC of those complex were measured. The results obtained were as follows : 1) It was found that the easy formation of M-metal complex and the amount of M-metal complex increased with the reaction time of M with metal. And also the longer reaction time of glycine with xylose rendered greater the formation of M-metal complex. For M, the amount of adduct with iron was the most, and these with copper, zinc and magnesium came in the followed order. 2) As for gel-filtration on Sephadex G25, this fraction gave same pattern as the M and metal in M-metal complex. 3) TLC chromatographic method of M-metal complex gave one spot, and from the above results, it was concluded that the M-metal complex forms.
The authors elucidated the constituents of the essential oil and the steam nonvolatile oil (fixed oil) from Elettaria cardamomum Maton. The nonvolatile oil was treated with 2N-sodium carbonate solution, and was separated into the two parts; sodium carbonate soluble part and insoluble part. Each part was investigated by means of column chromatography, gas chromatography, infrared spectrum, mass spectrum, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum and chemical method. As a result, following fifty kinds of compound were detected as constituents of the essential oil and nonvolatile oil; α-pinene, camphene, sabinene, myrcene, 1, 4-cineole, limonene, 1, 8-cineole, p-cymene, methyl heptenone, linalool, linalyl acetate, cis-p-2-menthen-1-ol, terpinen-4-ol, trans-p-2-menthen-1-ol, β-terpineol, α-terpineol, α-terpinyl acetate, borneol, neryl acetate, geranyl acetate, nerol, geraniol, nerolidol, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, arachidic acid, n-C17H36, n-C18H38, n-C19H40, iso-C20H42, n-C20H42, n-C21H44, n-C22H46, n-C23H48, n-C24H50, n-C25H52, n-C26H54, n-C27H56, n-28H58, n-29H60, n-C30H62, n-C31H64, n-C32H66.
A rapid method for the determination of micromoisture in surfactants by near-infrared spectroscopy was established. Using carbontetrachloride-DMSO (3 : 1, vol/vol) as the solvent, water has strong absorption at 1.94 u in the near-infrared region. The linear relationship is obtained between the absorbance value at 1.94μ and water content. Further, various surfactants is dissolved readily by DSMO. Based on these facts, in this method, surfactant sample (containing 520 mg of the water) was weighed into 50 ml volumemetric flask, and was dissolved with 12.5 ml of DMSO, and carbontetrachloride was added until marked line. The spectrum of the solution was measured from 1.7 to 2.1 μ in 10 cm quartz cell. And the absorbance value was obtained from peak-height of the band at 1.94μ by the baseline method. The moisture content was obtained from the absorbance value and the calibration curve. The results show that the micromoisture of various surfactants can be determined rapidly and with accuracy (deviation 2.1%) by this method. The concentration of detection limit was 1 mg in 50 ml sample soln.
In this report the relation between the structure and the detergency performance of the chelate-forming dicarboxylates containing nitrogen or sulphur atom was discussed. Then disodium salts of azadiacetic, azadipropionic, thiodiglycolic, thiodipropionic, hydrazinodiacetic, hydrazinodipropionic, 2-hydroxyethyliminodiacetic and 2-hydroxyethyliminodipropionic acids were prepared and their building performances were compared with disodium oxadiacetate and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) using alkylbenzene sulf ovate. The detergency tests were carried out on naturally soiled cotton fabrics and the detergency powers were evaluated by Scheffe's method. From the results summarized in Table-1, it is evident that disodium salt of 2-hydroxyethylimi-nodiacetic acid with alkylbenzenesulf ovate is as well active as STPP. In the case of dibasic acids containing imino or thioether group, diacetates are more active than di-β-propionates as in the case of oxadicarboxylates. These orders of activities are generally paralleld with those of stabilities of the chelates. The detersive effect of the dicarboxylates decreases as in the following order; oxadicarboxylate>azadicarboxylate>thiodicarboxylate. This tendency also agreed with that of the stability constants with divalent calcium chelates.
Di (2-hydroxyethyl) ether of 4, 9-dodecanediol was prepared and polyoxyethylated using basic catalyst to give the following nonionics (AD-12-4, 9 series). HO (C2H4O) m/2CH (n-C3H7) (CH2) 4CH (n-C3H7) O (C2H4O) m/2H Polyoxyethylated 1, 12-dodecanediol (AD-12-1, 12 series) and 1, 14-tetradecanediol (AD-14-1, 14 series) were also prepared. Some physicochemical properties of these new type nonionics were compared with those of 1-dodecanol-EO adducts (S-12 series) and other nonionics, in order to clarify the effects of relative position of two POE chains attached to n-alkane. Cloud points of aqueous solutions of these AD series were lower than those expected from their Davies's HLB values. Critical micelle concentrations and aqueous surface tensions of these AD series were considerably higher than those of comparable S series. Molecular areas of both AD-12 series were about two times larger than that of S-12 series. These results were discussed in terms of the characteristic configuration of these nonionics and the hydration mode of their POE chains in surface film or micellar surface. The gross effects such as foaming, wetting and anti-foaming powers of these AD series were also measured and compared with those of other types of nonionics.
Di-n-hexyl- or tri-n-butyl-carbinyl ethylene glycol monoethers were prepared from 2-n-hexyl-or 2, 2-di-n-butyl-l, 3-dioxolane and appropriate Grignard reagents. These were converted into nonionic surfactants containing two or three alkyl chains in the hydrophobe, (n-C6H13) 2CHO (C2H4O) mH (DC series), (n-C4H9) 3CO (C2H4O) mH (TC series), by the reaction with ethylene oxide (EO). Some surface active properties of these nonionics were examined in comparison with those of tridecanol-EO addcts (S series) and with other conventional nonionics in order to clarify the effects of the multi-chain type hydrophobe. For the same length of polyoxyethylene chain (m), the cloud point decreased in the order; S>TC>DC. Aqueous surface tension of DC- and TC-series was lower than that of S-series. No significant difference in molecular area on adsorbed film was observed between DC, TC and S having comparable m. A linear relation was found for m dependence of cmc in DC-, TC- and S-series. The cmc values markedly increased with increase of the number of alkyl chains in the hydrophobe, being consistent with “Hartleys' principle”. Some gross effects such as wetting efficiency, suspending and emulsifying powers were enhanced by the introduction of multi-chain structure to the hydrophobe, while the foaming properties reduced. These results were discussed from a viewpoint of the hydration of polyoxyethylene chain and the arrangement of adsorbed surfactant molecules.
The behavior of water-cyclohexane system containing 5 wt% polyoxyethylene (n) nonylphenylether was examined by measuring the transmittance, the electric conductivity, and the thermo differential. It was found that these physical properties varied peculiarly in the neighborhood of the phase inversion temperature (PIT). By investigating the temperature at which the physical properties varied, all the dispersion types of this system were determined. These results suggest that the analysis of emulsion system or the determination of the PIT is possible through the measurement of the physical properties.
Nine kindes of quaternary ammonium compounds were prepared from di-hydroxyethylaminoethyl terpenyl ether and terpenyl bromides which was obtained by bromination of terpene alcohols such as dihydrocitronellol, citronellol, geraniol, isoborneol with hydrobromic acid. Triethanolamine terpenyl ether was prepared from monosodium triethanolaminate and terpenyl bromides. Antimicrobial activities of these quaternary ammonium compounds were investigated.
The procedure for preparation of fatty acid methyl ester using boron trifluoride-methanol reagent was examined by varying the reaction conditions. Byproducts were observed to occur during the esterification of oleic and linolic acids. The amounts of these byproducts depended on the relative amounts of the unsaturated fatty acids against the amount of boron trifluoride. One of the byproducts formed from oleic acid was confirmed to be a methoxy derivative of methyl stearate. The another formed from oleic acid was believed as methyl substituted methyl stearate.