When fat surface is covered with a certain hood and the steam vaporizes from the fat surface, the fat surface is protected from contact with air, resulting that the thermal oxidation of fat is prevented according to the lessened degree of air contact. In the present study, as shown in Fig.-3, fat surface was covered with a funnel shape hood, and water was sprayed through the small side opening. The sprayed water was vaporized from the fat surface into the hood, and discharged out through the outlet hole on the top of hood into atmosphere. Relation between the flow rate of steam at the outlet hole of hood and the thermal oxidative deterioration was examined (Fig.-5, 6). As a result, no thermal oxidative deterioration was observed when the flow rate of steam was over 10 g/cm2/hr. This indicates that the leak of the air into the hood space can be completely prevented. However, if the contact of the edge of hood bottom with fat surface was not complete, such effect was not observed (Fig.-7, 8). Under such steam protection by means of hood, the rate of increase in acid value was less as compared with the case of metal float protection, although slightly increased than the case without protection. This hood system is considered suitable as a practical mean to protect frying oil from thermal oxidative deterioration during deep fat frying because of its simplicity and reliable effect.
The unsaponifiable matter in the blubber oil of sei-whale (Balaenoptera borealis, Lesson) was fractionated by column chromatography with activated alumina. Two fractions which appeared to contain hydrocarbons were analyzed by IR, NMR, and Mass spectrometry and by gas-liquid chromatography. The results showed that the oil contained pristane and squalene.
Polyoxyethylene derivatives of tall oil were prepared by addition polymerization of 475 moles ethylene oxide with tall oil in the presence of caustic alkali as catalyst. Tall oil added with less than 17 moles of ethylene oxide was yellowish brown and viscous liquid, and that with more than 17 moles was light yellow solid. In order to discuss the relation between the surface activity and mole numbers of ethyene oxide added, the surface activity (surface tension, foaming power, foam stability, penetrating power, lanolin number and washing efficiency) of the products was measured on various concentration (0.051.0%) of aqueous solution. The products with 46 moles of ethylene oxide were suitable as emulsifying or dispersing agent for wool fat. The products with 1625 moles of ethylene oxide indicated high foaming power and good foam stabilty and were excellent detergents for cotton.
Wetting power and foaming characteristics of binary aqueous solutions of dodecyl pyridinium chloride (DPC) -metal soap were investigated. Metal soaps used were laurates, stearates, oleates and ricinoleates of alkaline and alkaline earth metals. Molar ratios of DPC : metal soap in binary solutions were 2.5250 : 1. When metal soap was added to DPC, remarkable synergistic effects were found in wetting power for discs of felt or cotton cloth. Alkaline earth metal salts were superior than alkaline metal salts in producing the effects. Particularly, barium ricinoleate is excellent in this respect. Foaming power and foam stability of the most binary solutions markedly increased as compared with that of the each component. Among the kinds of metal salts constituting binary systems, barium salts of long chain fatty acids showed better values. All the laurates studied were excellent. Lithium stearate was excellent while magnesium stearate had no effects, inversely it showed very low foaming property. Then alkaline earth metal salts are not always superior than alkaline metal salts. In respect of synergistic effect, there are considerable similarities between the results of wetting power, foaming characteristics and that of surface tension, contact angle.
The oils were obtained from the above mentioned vegetable seeds by the ether extraction. The properties of the oils (Table-2) and components of the fatty acids (Table-3) were examined. The fatty acids were composed of C12 'C20 saturated and C14C20 (F1, F2, F3) unsaturated fatty acids. Through the crude unsaponifiables separated from the loquat seed oil and the matter extracted from the loquat seeds by the warm petroleum, it is very interesting that some higher aldehydes or ketones were found in them. Each of the crude unsaponifiables separated from these oils contained some sterols which were confirmed by the digitonin method or Hager-Salkowski's reaction.