Functional membranes are currently employed in a broad range of aplications. Among these membranes, the ion exchange membranes have special functional charcteristics such as permselectivities for specific ions, a low permeability for water, and/or permselectivities for inorganic ions and organic molecules. The selective transport of cations or anions through the membrane is provided by the ion exchange body in membrane form; an increase in fixed-ion concentration gives a higher membrane performance. Membranes, possessing a high permselectivity for univalent ions, are obtamable by the formation of a charged thin-layer on the membrane surface : The charge of the thin-layer is opposite to that of the rest part of the membrane. Permselectivities for inorganic ions and organic molecules are provided by a fine-pore structure of the membrane and the capability for ion transports.
The efficiency of tocopherol (Toc) in bringing about the oxidative deterioration of emulsified fatty foods was compared with that of other antioxidants, and the synergistic effects of the antioxidants and several synergists with Toc were investigated. Margarine, as a model of an emulsified fatty food, was prepared from lard with vitamin A and β-carotene. Its stability toward oxidation was evaluated on the basis of changes in POV, and content of vitamin A and β-carotene during storage at 25°C. 1) Isopropyl citrate had little effect on the oxidative deterioration of margarine. But, other antioxidants did so to a much greater degree than Toc in the order of propyl gallate (PG) _??_t-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) >dibutyl hydroxytoluene. 2) The addition of PG or TBHQ along with a mixture of d-Tocs (m-Toc) was found to provide the most protection of margarine against oxidative deterioration. However, the addition of PG or TBHQ to margarine resulted in brownish discoloration during storage. 3) Citric acid and L-ascorbyl stearate (AS) enhanced synergistically the effects of m-Toc on the oxidative deterioration of margarine. The effects of AS along with m-Toc, in particular, were almost the equivalent of these of PG. However, such effects were not observed in case of L-ascorbic acid and erythorbic acid, on being added to aqueous phase of margarine. 4) PG and TBHQ disappeared within a month durig storage. Thus, some of their oxidative products appear to preserve their antioxidant activity on margarine.
The thermo decomposition of 2-pinene oxide (1), 2 (10) -pinene oxide (2) and 1, 2-limonene oxide (3) in the presence of synthetic zeolites (3A, 4A, 5A and 13X zeolite) was investigated. Using with 3A zeolite at 200°C, α-campholenic aldehyde (5) was obtained with high selectivity (high 87%) in all converted products from (1). With 3A or 4A zeolite, phellandral (9) and β-pyronene aldehyde (11) were obtained as the two main products from (2). Under particular condi-tions, the ratio of (9) to (11) was 2 : 3. With 5A zeolite at 150190°C, carvenone (16) was obtained as the main product at high conversion (ca. 100% at most) and selectivity.
The effects of surface active agents on lipase production by Pseudomonas nov. sp. No.156 were investigated. When using a 500ml-shaking flask, lipase activity per ml. of culture broth increased with a decrease in liquid volume. Lipase activity was noted to decrease in the flask volume order of 100ml, 50ml, 25ml. While shaking the flasks, additional Adecanol LG-126 to the medium caused the differences in the extent of decrease in lipase activity according to flask volume to become less. The activity approximated that of the flasks with less liquid volume. These effects arise from an increase in the oxygen transfer rate (kLa) in the shaken flask and results in a greater production of lipase in the 500ml fermenter. Tween 60 failed to have any effect on the production of lipase and Nonion NS-215 and TM-211 were impossible to use because of accompanying blowing, even though there was high lipase activity.
The oil containing r-linolenic acid was extracted from fungi cells with supercritical carbon dioxide at 60°C. On the basis of the results obtained, the following conclusions were drawn : (1) the cell wall has to be destroyed prior to extraction, (2) carbon dioxide and carbon dioxide+entrainer such as ethanol or n-hexane are solvents in which this oil is quite easily dissolved, (3) the neutral lipid and fatty acid compositions of the extracted oil are essentially the same as those of the oil in fungi cells, and (4) carbon dioxide or carbon dioxide with entrainer extracts only neutral and not polar lipids.
To elucidate the mechanism by which silicone oil (SO) surpresses the thermal deterioration of frying oil, the following experiments were carried out. 1) Soybean, linseed and high oleic safflower oils with (11000ppm) or without SO were heated from room temperature to 180°C and their water content was measured by the Karl Fisher method. Water content in oils without SO decreased faster than that of oils with SO. 2) Changes in the amounts of dissolved oxygen in soybean and high oleic safflower oils with SO on heating were compared with those in oils without SO. The amounts of dissolved gases in oils were measured by GLC using a special furnace. The manner in which SO influences the amount of dissolved gases in oils was not clear. The influence of SO on the amounts of water and dissolved oxygen in oils did not account for the ability of SO to prevent the thermal deterioration of frying oils.