Mielkes Oil World Journal of West Germany published the special issue “Oil World 19582007” at the end of 1988. This report introduced the trend of oilseeds, oilmeals and oils and fats in the world according to the special issue. The review covered the fundamental factors affecting the oil and fat resources, the trend of crucial countries and the market situation on livestock, 12 oilmeals, 17 oils and fats and 10 oilseeds in the aspect of the long term trend from the past 30 years to the future 20 years. Recent information on plant breeding of major plant oil reseurces was also reviewed.
Four kinds of chitin derivatives, 6-O (2-hydroxyethyl) chitin, 6-O- [2- (2-hydroxyethoxy) ethyl] chitin, 6-O- (2, 3-dihydroxypropyl) chitin and 6-O- (carboxymethyl) chitin, eight kinds of monocarboxylated chitosan derivatives, N- (carboxymethoxyacetyl) chitosan, N- (3-carboxy-propanoyl) chitosan, N- (3-carboxypropanoyl) chitosan, N- (carboxymethyl) chitosan, 6-O- (carboxymethyl) chitosan, N- (carboxymethoxyacetyl) -6-O- (2-hydroxyethyl) chitosan, N- (3-carboxypropanoyl) chitosan and N- (carboxymethyl) -6-O- (2-hydroxyethyl) chitosan, and two kinds of dicarboxylated chitosan derivatives, N- (carboxymethoxyacetyl) -6-O- (carboxy-methyl) chitosan and N- (2-carboxypropanoyl) -6-O- (carboxymethyl) chitosan were prepared and their moisture-absorption and moisture-release properties were examined and compared with those of hyaluronic acid. The moisture-absorption and moisture release properties of 6-O- (carboxymethyl) chitosan, N- (carboxymethoxyacetyl) -6-O- (carboxymethyl) chitosan and N- (3-carboxypropanoyl) -6-O- (carboxymethyl) chitosan were found quite similar to those of hyaluronic acid. The introduction of carboxyl groups into chitin and chitosan improved their water retention capacity which was also considerably influenced by their positions of substituents and degree of substitution.
The desorption rates of dodecyl sulfate ions from nylon particles in aqueous solutions were determined using newly developed apparatus in the electric conductivity stopped-flow method. The temperature dependence of the desorption rate in the early stage of process was investigated and the activation energy of desorption was calculated from Arrhenius plots of the experimental results as 65.5kJ/mol. This value was almost equal to the enthalpy of adsorption that was pre-viously estimated in the same system. It shows that there is no activation energy of adsorption in the early stage of the process.
The structural characteristics of a water molecule on the membrane properties of L-α-phosphatidylcholines of different chain lengths were investigated by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and small angle X-ray scattering machine (SAXS). Ten water molecules per L-α-phosphatidylcholine were interposed between the bilayers of lipid molecules in the coagel phase and were independent of n-alkyl chain length. On adding urea to L-α-phosphatid-ylcholine-water systems, some of the interlamella water was converted to free water, and the apparent amount of interlamella water decreased with urea content. Furthermore, urea had effect only on the coagel-to-gel transition (Tgel), and not the gel-to-lamella liquid crystalline transition (Tc). The thickness of L-α-phosphatidylcholine (d1-dw) and interlamella distance (dw) of-L-α-phospatidylcholine bilayer decreased with increase in water and urea content. The radial distribution functions showed some lamella structural periodisity, which lessened on increasing water and urea content. It is thus evident that the structural characteristics of water molecules significantly determine the properties of the L-α-phosphatidylcholine bilayer.