The influence of cultural conditions, especially C/N ratio of medium, growth temperature and nitrogen source, on the amounts of lipids formed in the mycelium of three species of Pellicularia genera was investigated. It was found that the decrease of C/N ratio and the increase of growth temperature generally resulted in the increase of the amounts of fungal lipids. Maximum accumulation of lipids in the mycelium, 197 mg/200 ml medium, from glucose by using NH4NO3 as a nitrogen source occurred at a C/N ratio of 5.7 at 35°C by P, filamentosa sp. sasakii, IFO No. 8985. The fatty acid compositions of neutral and polar lipid fractions fractionated from lipid extracts by silicic acid column chromatography and the lipid compositions of both fractions were determined. The influence of the cultural conditions on these compositions was also investigated. High amounts of linoleic acid were present in both lipid fractions, particularly incubated at a C/N ratio of 5.7 at 20°C.
A new thermostable plasticizer which is a series of phthalic acid esters was synthesized from 2, 4-diphenyl-1-butene (DPB), the thermal decomposition products from the polystyrene. 2, 4-Diphenylbutanal (DPBAL) was obtained from DPB with electrophilic addition of chromium (VI) dichloride dioxide. 2, 4-Diphenyl-1-butanol (DPBOL) was synthesized by the reduction with LiAlH4 from DPBAL. Bis (2, 4-diphenylbutyl) phthalate (DPBP) which was the intended ester, was made by the reaction of phthaloyl dichloride and DPBOL in the presence of pyridine. The thermal stability of DPBP was measured with the thermogravimetric analysis (TG) which was compared with the typical phthalic acid ester plasticizers. Consequently, it becomes clear that the thermal stability of DPBP (282°C) was rised definitely compared with di-n-butyl phthalate (141°C). It was suggested that a revelation of the thermal stability of DPBP was attributable to the difficulty forming the six membered transition state for cis elimination reaction.
This investigation was carried out to study the effect of some detergents and surfactants on the early stages of growth of radish, chinese cabbage and rice in hydroponic culture. Based on the results and the known highest levels of major anionic surfactants present in river waters, it could be estimated that these are not capable of inhibiting growth of these plants. The threshold level of toxicity on test materials for these plants was different from that of the animals tested. Plants treated with sodium chloride, soybean sauce and phosphorous-containing detergent showed better growth compered to the control.
The behavior of liquid oily materials on the low energy surface in aqueous surfactant solutions has been studied from a stand point of surface chemistry. A polypropylene sheet was used as the low energy surface, and C6C14 saturated fatty alcohol, C6C11 fatty acids and C10C14n-paraffin were used as liquid oily materials. Surfactants used were sodium dodecyl sulfate and linear allkylbenzensulfonate. The interfacial tension and contact angle of oily droplet on polypropylene in both the surfactant solutions were measured. From the results, it was found that when oily materials come into contact with the surfactant solution, dissolution, solubilization, rolling-up, and complex formation occurred, and these phenomena depended upon the carbon chain length of alkyl group of oily materials and the concentration of surfactant. It was also found from this investigation that the sodium dodecylsulfate differed from the linear alkylbenzenesulfonate in the interfacial behavior.
The title compounds (3) were synthesized in a good yield by acylation of bis (pyridinio 2-imines) (2) which were prepared by the reaction of 2-aminopyridine with polyethylene glycol dichlorides or ω, ω'-dibromoalkanes and then alkaline treatment of the alkylation products. IR and 1H-NMR spetral data for (1), (2), and (3) gave additional supports to the contribution of the zwitter ionic structure in (3). Furthermore, 1H-NMR spectra change of (3) caused by addition of KSCN in several solvents and surface active properties of water-soluble (3) were examined. It was found that (3) carrying higher alkyl groups and longer polyoxyethylene chain showed a high catalytic activity close to that of dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 on the reaction of 1-bromooctane with aqueous KI.
The removal of soil particles from the capillary walls of cotton cloth was investigated by using electro-osmotic washing method. A cotton cloth soiled with iron (III) oxide or polystyrene latex particles was held between two plastic plates which had windows at the center and dipped in a washing bath.When an electric field was applied perpendicularly to the cloth by setting titanium electrodes and applying alternating current, the electro-osmotic flow took place in the capillaries of the cloth and hence the particles were removed from capillary walls. Zeta-potentials of particles and cloths were measured by ultramicro-electrophoresis and streaming potential methods respectively. The relative hydrodynamic force by electro-osmosis was estimated on the basis of Bernoulli theorem and the total potential energies of interaction between particles and fibers were calculated on the basis of heterocoagulation theory. It was found that the detergent efficiency depended on the magnitude of potential barrier for the removal of particles (VTmax - VTmin) and the strength of electric field. The results obtained suggest that the electro-osmotic flow in capillaries of cloths acts effectively in producing the force to remove soil particles from walls.
The effect of the marine humic acid on lipid bilayer liposomes was studied to evaluate the physiological activity of humic acids to the biological membrane. A marine humic acid extracted from a sediment of Suruga Bay was used. Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) was treated by the alcohol method to prepare the liposome solution, then was subjected to gel permeation chromatography on a Sepharose 4 B column. Potassium ion was released when humic acid was added to liposomes containing potassium ion at 30°C. A valinomycine impregnated ion selective electrode was used for detection of the ion. The high concentration of humic acid caused a rapid release of the ion. The effect was markedly observed above the phase transition temperature. The liposome solution incubated with the humic acid at 30°C for more than 48 h showed an increase in its turbidity ; which was ascribed to the fusion of liposomes. At the ratio of the humic acid concentration to the DMPC concentration 510, the fusion was seemed to be inhibited. The fusion was considerably slow compared to the other two interactions. The phase transition temperature of DMPC liposomes was determined by means of a fluorescent probe. Liposomes with the fluorescent probe were incubated with the humic acid for 1 h at 30°C and the fluorescence intensity was measured. Above 1 ppm of the humic acid shifted the phase transition to lower temperature by 2°C and less than 1 ppm caused the effect proportional to the concentration. These results indicate that the humic acid interacts with liposomes to change the surface of the membrane and to increase the liquidity of the lipid.
Three kinds of fish oils were hydrogenated by two commercial nickel catalysts and active oxygen method (AOM) Stabilities of their partially hydrogenated oils were investigated. The use of catalyst, S or X resulted in closely similar AOM stabilities and iodine values on the partially hydrogenated three kinds of fish oils, respectively. Those relations were selective by catalyst S and X, respectively. Then, AOM stabilities of the partially hydrogenated fish oils by catalyst S or X were related to the contents of conjugated and conjugatable unsaturated fatty acid in the hydrogenated fish oils below 10% of the contents.
3-Allyl-3-hydroxy acids were prepared from the reaction of allylic ketones and carboxylic acids using lithium naphthalenide in the presence of diethylamine. From the reaction of 3-allyl-3-hydroxy acids using sulfuric acid, 2, 3-unsaturated 2, 3-disubstituted-5-methyl-δ-valerolactones were obtained.