For many years natural squalene has been a familiar health food supplement, while natural squalane has been the most important oily ingredient for all cosmetic products. In this paper the possibility of new application of squalene and squalane are discussed, furthermore the latest trends and the future perspective about shark liver oil which is the raw material for these compounds are described.
Representative, three types of phospholipid vesicles such as SUV (small unilamellar vesicle), LUV (large unilamellar vesicle) and MLV (multilamellar vesicle) were thermodynamically investigated by high sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A phase transition of gelto-liquid crystal of these vesicles was characterized by the transition temperature, transition enthalpy, transition entropy, van't Hoff enthalpy and the cooperative unit. Based on these thermal quantities, the present study discussed the thermodynamic stability of the vesicle system and also the aggregation state as well as the motional state of the lipid molecules in their assembly of vesicle.
In the present work, the formation of ternary liquid crystals and the removal of fatty soil were studied for nonionic surfactant systems (surfactant/water/fatty acid soil) in the same manner as in previous studies. Observation with a polarizing microscope indicated that, for all nonionic surfactant systems, the liquid crystal phase is formed by transition from a concentrated solution phase. Thus, in the case of a nonionic surfactant system, the temperature for liquid crystal formation Tn may be considered a phase transition temperature such as the so-called Phase Inversion Temperature (PIT). The rate constants of fatty soil removal for nonionic surfactant systems were calculated under various mechanical conditions from the rate equatoion of fatty soil removal, presented in the previous paper. The dependence of the rate constants on temperature indicated the formation of liquid crystals to be essential to fatty soil removal as also noted for the anionic surfactant system. The detergency Fm for each mechanical force M was determined using the equation indicated the previous paper from the activation energy for removal (Ea). The dependence of Fm on M indicated the contribution of mechanical force to detergency to be less in the nonionic surfactant than anionic surfactant system.
The solubilization of synthetic perfumes (eugenol, linalool, benzyl acetate, α-ionone, α-hexyl cinnamaldehyde, and d-limonene) by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been studied in regard to maximum additive concentration, solubilizing power, solubilized micelle size, polarity of the micellar interior, partition coefficient, partial molar volume and volatility speed. It was found that, the more hydrophilic are the synthetic perfumes, the greater are the maximum additive concentration and solubilizing power. The synthetic perfumes deeply penetrated the palisade layer of SDS micelles, the extent of which depended on the decrease in their hydrophilic property. The polarity of micellar interior decreased with increase in the amount of synthetic perfume dissolved, except for α-Ionone and α-hexyl cinnamaldehyde. The partition coefficient between the micelle and bulk phases decreased with increase in the solubility. The partial molar volumes of synthetic perfumes dissolved were less than those of pure synthetic perfumes. Volatility speed from micelle solution was influenced by the partition coefficient between the micelle and bulk phase.
A specific antiserum against ceramide 2-aminoethylphosphonate (CAEPn) from spermatozoa of the fresh-water bivalve, Hyriopsis schlegelii, was raised in rabbit. The IgG fraction prepared from this antiserum agglutinated the liposomes containing CAEPn, but not those containing other phosphono-and phospholipids. The antigen specificity of anti-CAEPn IgG was further examined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to reveal antigenic determinants being C-P bond, free amino group and ceramide portion (the acid-amide bond) possibly. Immunoquantitative analysis of CAEPn in several fresh- and marine-water shellfish by ELISA showed these shellfish to contain CAEPn in amounts 5 to 40% that of the alkali-stable lipid (sphingolipid fraction).