Lards were interesterified with sodium methoxide (s.m) as a catalyst. Methanol from s.m was analyzed in deodorized oil after final refining of interesterified oil by gas chromatography. As the peak of methanol has not been found, it is less than 1 ppm if present. Also, sodium compounds remained in interesterified and refined lards were analyzed by atomic absorption. The degree of oxidation was found to have influence on them. That is, the higher oxidative degree, the more sodium remained. In the steam distillate from deodorization, methyl esters were identified by GC-Mass spectrometry. It shows the conversion of s.m to the methyl estsrs in the process.
It is generally well-known that silicone oil (SiO) increases thermal stability of a frying oil. However, the mechanism for its stability is not well-defined. Therefore, this studies have been undertaken in order to elucidate the mechanism with which SiO suppressed the thermal deterioration of a frying oil. In the present paper, the effect of SiO on the stability in an oil was investigated by various heating procedures. The oil (refined but not deodorized soybean oil) was treated with stirring up its surface in beaker and air bubbling through a glass-tube inserted into a test tube (25mm×25cm) by varying temperature (120, 150, 180, and 240°C) and SiO content (1, 10, 100, and 1000 ppm), respectively. Further, frying test was practically carried out at 240°C using TOFU-NAMAAGE. The extend of deterioration of these heated oil was evaluated by the viscosity measurments. In any heating procedures, it was shown from the above experiments that the thermal deterioration (polymerization) of the frying oil was much more suppressed with an increase of SiO added.
Malachite Green derivatives bearing butyl, hexyl, octyl and decyl group were prepared by the condensation reaction of N, N-dimethylaniline with alkylbenzaldehydes which had been obtained from alkylbenzenes by chloromethylation followed by oxidation. Surface tension of aqueous solutions of these derivatives were determined by electro surface balance and it was found that the surface tension lowered with an increase of the carbon number of the alkyl group and surface tension of aqueous solution of the decyl derivative was about 27 dyn /cm. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities were evaluated in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration by a dilution method. Their activities increased markedly with decrease in the number of carbon in the alkyl group. The butyl derivative showed the highest activity among these derivatives, and the activity was comparable to that of a commercial cationic surfactant. Dyeing properties of these derivatives for some bacterial cells and textiles were also examined.
Lithium naphthalenide reacts with carboxylic acids containing two hydrogen at 2-position in the presence of diethylamine to give the dianions of carboxylic acids. Reaction of these dianions with epoxides gives the corresponding dianions of 4-hydroxy acids. These dianions of 4-hydroxy acids give corresponding trianions of 4-hydroxy acids by the action of lithium naphthalenide. Treetment of these trianions react with epoxides followed by hydrolysis give 4, 4'-dihydroxy acids. The 4, 4'-dihydroxy acids easily cyclize to give γ-butyrolactones containing hydroxy groups in their side chains. Oxidation of these lactones gives γ-butyrolactones containing carbonyl groups in their side chains.
Gelatin reacted with Copper (II) ion in dilute aqueous solution to form water-soluble and foamy complex. The good effect of copper removal by gelatin was observed by the foam treatment of this solution. And also lead was effectively removed by the same treatment. The effect was further raised by the adsorption treatment using gelatin powder before the foam treatment. About 99 % of copper in the pH range from 6.5 to 7.3 and nearly 100% of lead about pH 7.0 was removed respectively.
Analyses of fatty acid and sterol compositions were made with several oil samples obtained from rapeseeds (9 samples) and mustard seeds (2 samples) imported into Japan during 1976, and the correlation in percentages between erucic acid and brassicasterol was examined. Although the contents of erucic acid varied between 0 and 47.1 % with samples, the contents of brassicasterol were approximately constant within 79 % and the quantity of total sterols was also at 810880 mg/100 g. Consequently, from these facts there can be no correlation between erucic acid and brassicasterol. Similarly, there was no correlation between erucic acid and campesterol or sitosterol.