Govermental agency have published through analytical researches that the total amount of consumption of edible fats and oils in Japan is about 2, 000, 000 t every year, in which 400, 000 t is discharged as the used frying oil. The part of waste oil (180, 000200, 000 t) is collected from food service business and food industry and regenerated for reuse. My investigation indicated that most of used frying oil from household finally have been burnt up as garbages after some treatment. For the purpose of the establishment of new recycling system for the collection, regeneration and reuse of used frying oil (about 150, 000 t from household), an adequate volume of used oil with good quality should be secured, other use of collected waste oil should be discovered and the industrial power of oil collection trader and oil regeneration trader shoud be built up.
The formation of reverse vesicles was studied in a water/sucrose monoalkanoate/1-hexanol/ decane system. The reverse vesicles were found to be quite stable. Particle size could be controlled by the extrusion method. Stability was comfirmed by video enhanced microscopy (VEM), and dynamic light scatterring. Stability was also determined as function of 1-hexanol concentration at various concentrations of water (0 %, 1 %, and 3 %) in the system. Water and 1-hexanol were found indispensable to formation and stabilization of the reverse vesicles. Water served to make the bilayers more flexible and 1-hexanol caused the lamellar liquid crystals to disperse as reverse vesicles. With further increase in 1-hexanol concentration, sucrose monoalkanoate dissolved in oil as reverse micelles. Coagulation of the reverse vesicles thus occurred in the presence of reverse micelles in the 1-hexanol-rich region.
Various kinds of free fatty acid were examined on their antitumor activity against ascites tumor cells, Survival days of mice after administrations of free fatty acid were observed. From these data I.L.S. (Increase of life-span) was culcurated and used as a parameter of Antitumor activity. Effective fatty acids against Sarcoma-180 were as follows : Pentadecanoic acid in saturated fatty acid series of carbon number 6 to 24, oleic acid in mono-unsaturated fatty acid series, and α-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acids in poly-unsaturated fatty acid series. The most effective fatty acid in our antitumor activity research is (hydroxy phenyl) stearic acid. The mechanism on antitumor activity of free fatty acid is not made clear sufficiently but it was suggested that disorder of membrane caused by fatty acids is responsible for their antitumor effect.
Effects of the fatty acid (m=846) and alcohol (n=818) portions in sodium 2-sulfonatofatty acid higher alcohol esters [α-SF : CmH2 m+1 CH (SO3Na] COOCnH2 n+1) on the bilayers were investigated with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and small angle X-ray scanning machine (SAXS). The amount of structural water intercorporated into a coagel phase composed of α-SF molecules was independent of total hydrophobic chain lengths of the surfactants ; viz., 3 or 4 water molecules per unit α-SF molecule. Coagel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition (Tc) temperatures of α-SFs increased with an increase in the total hydrophobic chain lengths and/or with a decrease in the difference between two hydrophobic chain lengths. The Tc temperature of α-SFs, in which hydrophobic chain lengths are the same, was closely related to the length in the carbon-bonds of the longer of the two hydrophobic chain lengths (CL). SAXS indicated the structure of the bilayer of α-SFs to be interdigital. With an increase in the total hydrophobic chain lengths of α-SFs, the lamellar repeat period of α-SFs increased, while those of α-SFs were independent of the difference in length of two hydrophobic chain lenghs.
Gal β 1-Cer (CMS3) and cholinephosphoryl→6 Gal β 1-Cer (PGL) were found as the main neutral and amphoteric glycosphingolipids from the whole tissue of the lugworm, Tylorhynchus heterochaetus. These lipids were purified by successive column chromatography on DEAE- and QAE-Sephadex A-25, Florisil and silicic acid (Iatrobeads), and identified by gas-liquid chromatography, methylation analysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, chromium trioxide oxidation, hydrogen fluoride degradation and positive-ion fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. The ceramide moieties of both glycolipids were virtually the same : fatty acids were saturated C16-, C17- and C18-acids ; sphingoids were octadeca-4-sphingenine and octadeca-4, 8-sphingadienine. The structural similarity of the ceramide moieties suggests PGL biosynthesis from CMS3. In addition, their thin-layer chromatographic behaviors and the results of sugar analysis suggest that the structures of at least three minor components of the ceramide mono-, di- and trisaccharide fractions are Glc-Cer, Man-Gal-Cer and Man-Gal-Gal-Cer, respectively.
α-and γ-Linolenic acid-enriched triacylglycerols (TG) were fractionated from vegetable oils by column chromatography on silicic acid. Fractionated TG from vegetable oil were differed according to the degree of unsaturation. Unsaturation indices of fractionated TG increased linearly with the order of elution. More unsaturated TG, contain considerable amounts of α-linolenic acid (22 % for soybean oil, 34 % for rapeseed oil and 80 % for linseed oil) and of γ-linolenic acid (27 % for evening primrose oil), were obtained from vegetable oil in satisfactory yields (11, 9, 33 and 11 %, respectively).