油化学
Online ISSN : 1884-2003
ISSN-L : 0513-398X
37 巻 , 6 号
選択された号の論文の14件中1~14を表示しています
  • 土屋 友房, 島本 整
    1988 年 37 巻 6 号 p. 386-393
    発行日: 1988/06/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 太垣 和一郎
    1988 年 37 巻 6 号 p. 394-401
    発行日: 1988/06/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    This review describes the synthesis, the properties, and the functions of some cyclodextrin derivatives. Cyclodextrins are cylindrical molecules and well known to form host-guest complexes, but they are not amphiphilic molecules. Specific modification of primary and secondary hydroxyl groups transforms cyclodextrins into some water soluble surfactants or lipophilic derivatives soluble in organic solvents such as chloroform. Certain lipophilic derivatives form well-defined monolayers at water-air interface and multilayers as Langmuir-Blodgett films on solid plates. Characteristic feature of these derivatives is to form specific host-guest complexes. Complexation occures in surfactant aggregates as well as in monolayer or multilayer membranes.
  • 高木 俊夫
    1988 年 37 巻 6 号 p. 402-407
    発行日: 1988/06/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    Gel electrophoresis and gel chromatography in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) are now widely used in the field of biochemistry for separation and analysis of proteins. Replacement of the sodium of SDS by lithium allows efficient separation of protein polypeptides in denatured state at 0°C. On the other hand, the replacement by Tris and several alkanolamines allows electrophoresis and gel chromatography at a temperature near 0°C of proteins retaining their native states. Derivatives of SDS having oligo (oxyethylene) chain between the dodecyl and sulfate groups are also promising as mild surfactants which can be used for the same purpose as above.
  • 米谷 芳枝, 石倉 豊昭, 永井 恒司
    1988 年 37 巻 6 号 p. 408-415
    発行日: 1988/06/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 羽藤 正勝
    1988 年 37 巻 6 号 p. 416-421
    発行日: 1988/06/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    Current experimental techniques for estimation of the cell surface tension by contact angle measurements were reviewed.
    It is shown that in the process of measuring the contact angles of drops of water or air bubbles at biological surfaces, transfer of natural surface active materials to the air/water interface occurs with a consequent reduction in the surface tension. The estimation of cell surface tensions from contact angles based on theoretical calculations in which the air/water tension of pure water is used are in error.
    The adhering bubble method is preferable for contact angle determinations in biological systems.
  • 樋口 勝彦, 山科 孝雄, 平田 博文
    1988 年 37 巻 6 号 p. 422-426
    発行日: 1988/06/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    TMS化しないスフィンゴシン塩基のエリトロ体とトレオ体との分離に関し, 合成したCn-ジヒドロスフィンゴシン (1) を基質として, 順相HPLC及びGLCによる方法を検討した。本研究で用いた条件下では, 遊離塩基 (1) のエリトロ体とトレオ体は分離できなかったが, (1) のN, O, O-トリアセチル及びN-アセチル体 [(2) 及び (3)] の形にすると, 順相HPLCで分離できた。また, ポリエチレングリコール20Mを化学的に結合させたカラムを用いると, (2) の形でGLCでエリトロ体とトレオ体が分離できた。本報の両会析法から求めた (1) のエリトロ体の含量は良好な一致を示すとともに, 従来法 (TMS化合物を用いたGLC法) の結果とも一致した。また, 本報のGLCによる方法をGC-MSによる2-d-ジヒドロスフィンゴシンの重水素含量の決定に応用した。
  • 原 節子, 志田 真紀, 戸谷 洋一郎
    1988 年 37 巻 6 号 p. 427-430
    発行日: 1988/06/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    We previously reported a potentiometric titration method which permits detection of very small amounts of hydroperoxides present in serum lipids. In the present work, lipid peroxide levels were determined by potentiometry in sera from about 400 subjects over 65 years old. The correlation of lipid peroxide levels with ageing was studied by comparing the levels of aged people with those of healthy young persons in their 20's or middle aged people in their 40's or 50's.
    The average serum lipid peroxide level of persons in their 40's was found to be 40.4±20.8 neq/mL, the highest of all male groups, decreased in proportion to the age of persons older than this. All female groups showed similar levels (ca. 26 neq/mL) independent of age. The specific values for the 40's group calculated as peroxide levels per 1 g of serum lipids exceeded those of other groups for both sexes, and were noted to decrease with ageing.
    Moreover, judging from the health conditions of subjects over 65 years old, the serum lipid peroxide levels of the cerebrovascular group appeared higher than those of the normal human group with significant difference. Since the subjects of typical geratic diseases surveyed in the present study were outpatients afflicted with mild forms of disease, further investigation should be conducted on patients of seriously afflicted to determine the correlation of serum lipid peroxide levels with various diseases.
  • 蜂屋 巌, 古谷野 哲夫, 佐藤 清隆
    1988 年 37 巻 6 号 p. 431-436
    発行日: 1988/06/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    The solidification behavior of cocoa butter from the melt phase was examined during two different types of thermal treatment : simple cooling (60→29°C) and cooling/heating (60→22→30°C).Triacylglycerol composition and polymorphic modified samples were determined. The crystals formed by simple cooling were a mixture of Form V and Form VI of cocoa butter. But only the Form V could be found in crystals obtained by the cooling/heating. These crystals were filtered out and what appeared to be fat blooming of the solidified samples of residual melt was examined. The fat blooming was found in solidified fat after the filtration of simple cooling crystals less than 1 μm in size and in cooling/heating cystals 0.22 μm in size. The addition of 0.2 % of the seed crystals of cocoa butter with Form VI increased the rates of solidification and no fat blooming was observed.
  • 玉木 国夫, 浅田 美佐子
    1988 年 37 巻 6 号 p. 437-440
    発行日: 1988/06/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    The viscosity B coefficients, heats of solution and surface activity of straigt chain α-amino acids H (CH2) n-1CH (NH2) COOH (Cn, n=15) in water were measured. The viscosity B coefficient of C1, increased with temperature, while those of C2 and higher homologs decreased with increase in temperature. Changes in heat capacity for dissolution in water, ΔC0p, as calculated from heats of solution at 15, 25, and 35°C, were negative for C1, white ΔC0p values for C2 and higher homologs were positive. C1, and C2 raised the surface tension of water, while C3 and higher homologs reduced it. Based on these results, structural changes in water as solvent with dissolution of α-amino acids and the effects of hydrophobicity of α-amino acids on surface active properties are discussed.
  • 猪熊 精一, 伊藤 大介, 桑村 常彦
    1988 年 37 巻 6 号 p. 441-446
    発行日: 1988/06/20
    公開日: 2010/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    A series of novel amphiphilic monoazacrown ethers (1 a-n) have easily been prepared in high yields by addition reaction of monoaza-15-crown-5 and -18-crown-6 to homologous 1, 2-epoxyalkanes and alkyl glycidyl ethers in methanol.
    They were examined for cloud point and critical micelle concentration in aqueous solution, complexing stability constants with alkali metal cations in methanol and phase-transfer catalysis on Finkelstein reaction.
    The hydrophilicity and cation-complexing ability of N-alkylmonoazacrown ethers was progressively enhanced by introducing a β-hydroxyl group and the additional insertion of ether oxygen into the alkyl side chain. In spite of their great hydrophilicity, the crown ethers (1) with 18-membered ring had high phase-transfer catalytic efficiency which was superior to that of dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (3) and similar to that of N-dodecylmonoaza-18-crown-6 (2 b), indicating that the excellent catalysis of (1) to be due to cation-complexation ability.
  • 山田 泉, 船戸 一佳, 黒岩 茂隆
    1988 年 37 巻 6 号 p. 447-452
    発行日: 1988/06/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    The rate equation for fatty soil removal as given below is based on the assumption that the cleaning process consists of the following two processes :
    (1) Removal of the first order, depending on initial concentration of soil in fabrics (Process 1).
    (2) Reversible soil removal and redeposition of removed soil (Process 2).
    At =a1exp (-k1 t) +a2exp [- (k2-k-2) t].
    where At is the absorbance corresponding to soil concentration in fabrics at time t, k1, and k2 rate constants of soil removal during processes 1 and 2 respectively, and k2, the rate constant for the redeposition of removed soil.
    The experimental results on model soil removal (fatty acid) from fabrics by SDS indicated the present treatment to be adequate. Soil removal in both processes was confirmed to be essentially the same in the case of fatty soil. The dependence of the rate constants and removal rate on temperature indicates the formation of liquid crystalline phases played to possibly be important to fatty soil detergent action.
  • 野村 正人, 藤原 義人
    1988 年 37 巻 6 号 p. 453-457
    発行日: 1988/06/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    9-Oxo-trans-2-decenoic acid (9) [Queen substance] and 10-hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid (17) [Royal jelly], both sex pheromones of the Apis mellifera were synthesized.
    The starting material which contained 3-acetyl-1-propanol, 3-chloro-1-propanol and 6-bromo-hexanoic acid was processed by relatively simple procedures such as dehydrogenation, Grignard reaction, hydrogenation, lithium aluminium hydride reduction, malonic acid condensation to produce sex pheromones (9) and (17) in yields of 2538%. The reaction products were identified by comparing their IR and 1H-NMR spectra with those of authentic samples.
  • 石川 一彦, 平田 博文
    1988 年 37 巻 6 号 p. 458-460
    発行日: 1988/06/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    Candida cylindraceaリパーゼのアミノ基はpH7.5の緩衝液中でN-スクシンイミジルカルボキシレートにより容易に修飾できた。修飾酵素のうちいくつかのものは, 修飾により酵素の疎水性が高くなり, 基質との接触が促進されるめ, 未修飾の場合に比べて高い活性を示した。
  • 西 康隆, 酒巻 弘, 一戸 良行
    1988 年 37 巻 6 号 p. 461-464
    発行日: 1988/06/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    A/B環結合のシス型からトランス型への変換において, methyl 12-methoxy-5α, 10α-podocarpa-8, 11, 13-trien-15-oate (1) のパラジウム-炭素触媒による異性化反応でmethyl 12-methoxy-5β, 10α-podocarpa-8, 11, 13-trim-15-oate (3) と, 新たに中間体のmethyl 12-methoxy-5α, 10α-podocarpa-6, 8, 11, 13-tetraen-15-oate (2) を単離した。
    化合物 (2) は合成標品と同定してその構造を確かめ, この異性化反応経路について検討した。
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