Bis-quaternary ammonium salts (H25C12-CH3-N-CH3-CmH2m-CH3-N-CH3-C12H25m : 220) were found to form vesicles as molecular aggregates. The vesicles were used as reaction media to evaluate the activity of a hydrolase model ; the hydrolysis of amino acid esters was carried out using a glycolipid as a model of α-chymotrypsin. Catalytic activity was affected by vesicle membrane fluidity and the addition of cholesterol caused the membrane to become somewhat rigid. Essentially the same is noted for reactions in a living system.
Optimum conditions were determined for the preparation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine (PMME), and phosphatidyl-N, N-dimethylethanolamine (PDME) from phosphatidylcholine (PC) concentrated soy phospholipid (PC-90) by trans-phosphatidylation catalyzed by phospholipase D : PC-90 contaminated with PE (10 %); 100 mg, aminoalcohol ; 3 M, phospholipase D ; 1.5 IU, calcium ion ; 1 M, diethyl ether ; 5 mL, water content ; 12 mL, pH ; 4.85.2, and reaction time ; 30 min. Under these conditions, conversion from PC-90 to PE, PMME, and PDME was 95, 83, and 74 %, respectively. Differences in these values are considered due to the specificity of phospholipase D for each aminoalcohol.
Attempt was made to stabilize the supersaturation of (or prevent the precipitation of) glyceryl monopalmitate (GMP) which has poor solubility in ethanol at low temperature. To increase the solubility of GMP, solbitan laurate (SL-10), a nonionic surfactant, was added to an ethanol solution of GMP. Solubility was increased from 3 to 10 times as much due to SL-10. GMP prepicitated at 0.015 mol/kg GMP in ethanol, but at 0.083 mol/kg GMP in ethanol containing 0.1 mol/kg SL-10 at -5°C. The molar ratio of GMP TO SL-10 in the precipitates was 1 : 0.21 : 0.5. Precipitation time of GMP with or without SL-10 was determined at various conditions of GMP and/or SL-10 at -10+25°C. Longer precipitation time indicated greater stabilization of supersaturation of GMP. With increase in SL-10, precipitation time increased and in the GMP solution, on precipitation occurred at low temperature. At SL -10/GMP=0.4, the lowest temperature at which GMP solution supersaturation was maintained was 78°C less that of the solution containing only GMP. The mechanism for GMP supersaturation stabilization is discussed with consideration to hydrogen bonding between the OH groups of SL-10 and ester groups of GMP, and hydrophobic interactions between the hydrocarbon chains of SL-10 and GMP.
The aerobic biodegradation of poly (3-hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB), a biodegradable plastic, through the action of sewage bacteria was followed by the production of CO2 at 510 mg carbon/L. The degradation started at after 23 d of lag phase and was 7179 % complete in 30 d. PHB is metabolized via acetoacetic acid, a potential precursor of trihalomethanes (THM). The biodegradation intermediates of PHB were thus chlorinated and THM production and the toxicity of other chlorinated products were examined. THM as volatile product could not be detected (less than 10 μg/L). Other non-volatile chlorinated products were not mutagenic (rec-assay) and no growth inhibitory (algae-assay) activity was noted. PHB at 510 mg carbon/L is thus shown to be extensively degraded by sewage bacteria and degradation intermediates are unlikely to produce toxic materials even following chlorination.
Crossed aldol condensation reactions between various aldehydes (saturated fatty aldehydes, unsaturated aldehydes and terpene aldehydes) and acetone using solid base catalysts were studied. Ca (OH) 2, Sr (OH) 2·8H2O and Ba (OH) 2·8H2O were found to be very effective for the crossed aldol condensation reactions. The various aldehydes were converted to their corresponding α, β-unsaturated ketones.
Methanol extracts from Inomotosou (Pteris multifida Poiret) were fractionated by column chromatography with many kinds of solvents. Sucrose was isolated from methanol fraction in water soluble part, and β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol-β-glucoside were isolated from chloroform fraction of methanol soluble part in water insoluble part. It was first that β-sitosterol-β-glucoside was isolated from Inomotosou.
Phase behaviors and the mechanisms of the formation of the lamellar membranes for artificial intercellular stratum corneum lipids containing a synthetic pseudo-ceramide (SLE) were studied by mixing the equimole of SLE and other components of natural intercellular stratum corneum lipids (SCL) by X-ray and DSC measurements. The results showed that SCL forms a stable lamellar membrane being essentially identical to that of natural SCL. From the fact that a stable lamellar structure was obtained only in the mixed system of SLE and long-chain fatty acids, we conclude that the fatty acids play an important role as a co-operator of a self-organization of natural SCL.