Experiments for prevention of hardened coconut oil series deterioration were made with four kinds of sugar fatty acid esters, monoolein, monolinolein and propylene glycol esters of fatty acids. 1) Sugar fatty acid esters, ranging from lipophilic ones containing a large amount of triester to hydrophilic ones with a larger content of monoester, were added by 1-2%. Rise in A.V. was hardly observed in samples added with sugar esters containing a large amount of triester. There were some effect in other esters but the rise in A.V. occured with decrease in the content of triester. 2) Examination of the crystal surface showed the presence of minute single crystals in the sample added with lipophilic sugar ester with low triester content, but the surface was much more smooth than that of the control sample without the addition. Sample added with lipophilic sugar ester and which did not show rise in A.V. was a non-crystalloid and had smooth surface. 3) Addition of monoolein or monolinolein could prevent the increase in A.V. up to a certainextent. Electron microscopic observations on crystal surface of such samples exhibited more smooth than the control samples without such addition. Propylene glycol ester of fatty acid was practically ineffective in preventing the crystal growth.
Chlorophosphonations of methyl n-alkyl ethers with the alkyl chain of C3-C6 were carried out in the condition of the reactant ratio of 1 : 5 of the ether to PCl3, with oxygen gas flow rate of 100ml/min, and at -15-0°C, for 3 hrs. The distributions of the product isomers were determined by GLC using Ucon LB 550X column, 3m×3mmφ with nitrogen gas carrier. The relative reactivities of the C-H bond of the ether to the terminal methyl of the alkyl group (R) are shown in the following Table. 1-Methoxy-1-dichlorophosphinylalkane could'nt be obtained.
Determination of water and lower alcohols in household detergents was investigated by gas chromatography. Finely separated peak shape can be obtained by using porous polymer beads (Porapak-Q) as active solid, and water indicates the behavior corresponding to a case of carbon number zero in alcohol homologue. TCD is used for determination of water and lower alcohols simultaneously, and HFID is preferable for determination of only lower alcohols. Water and lower alcohols in household liquid detergents are easily identified and determined by this method.
In order to get practically non-irritative compounded perfumes for soaps, the authors carried out the primary irritation tests of 19 kinds of natural and 43 kinds of synthetic perfumes by the closed patch test on the human skin. The test conditions were as follows : Total subjects of 11, 357 of males and females with both normal and dermatoses, 0.05-20% of administration levels in media such as vaseline, ointment, non-irritative cream base and 99% ethanol. Positive reactions were observed with several natural and synthetic perfumes within 24-72 hrs after application. Based on the results, the authors formulated seven kinds of compounded perfumes for soaps by use of the milder odorous materials. The primary irritation and photo toxicity tests of the said compounded perfumes were carried out by the patch test. The administration level was 20% of the substances in olive oil as medium. Seventy seven males and females with a variety of dermatoses were exclusively tested for subjects, and 1.3-5.2% of the subjects showed the positve reaction by the patch test. Regarding the condition of the subjects and application level, the range of percentage is considered not to be so high. The result of the photo patch tests was negative in all cases. As the quantity of the compounded perfume used in soaps is usually 1-2%, the skin irritation which might be caused by the perfumes is thought to be quite weak from the practical view point.
The effects of a commercial shampoo on hair, skin, and hair follicle were examined by the following three methods. 1) The tension tests and microscopical observations were carried out to see the physical change of the hairs. 2) The patch tests were made on healthy human skin. 3) The histopathological observations were obtained after 24 hr-patch test on the skin of four kinds of animals (Guinea pig, rat, rabbit and pig). The results obtained were as follows : The shampoo showed no effect on the hair. No positive reactions were found in the human patch tests under 4 hrs application of the shampoo itself and 10 hrs application of 5% solution of the shampoo. As for the animal tests, little effects on the skin were observed at 10% level of treatment. Though, in case of shampoo itself, an irritative reaction was found on the epidermis of some kinds of animals, but no obvious change of hair follicles was observed.