The stabilities of 30% milk fat/water emulsions containing monoglyceride, sorbitan fatty acid ester and caseinate were determined by measuring coalescence rates of their dispersed globules, free fat indexes and energy barriers to coalescence. The O/W emulsion stabilized by caseinate alone showed the lowest stability (coalescence rate 4.13×10-6s-1, free fat index 25.0%, energy barrier to coalescence 4.32kcal/mol), but those stabilized by both caseinate and the blend of monoglyceride-sorbitan monostearate showed much higher stability (coalescence rate 3.33×10-7s-1, free fat index 2.8%, energy barrier to coalescence 7.05kcal/mol). In the series of emulsions stabilized by both caseinate and a blend of monoglyceride-sorbitan fatty acid ester, the highest emulsion stability was obtained at HLB of 4.3.
The moisture regain of textile fibers and the water content in solution equilibrated together with them were determined in the presence of various amounts of water solubilized by 0.1M Aerosol OT in perchloroethylene at 10, 20, and 30°C. The vapor pressure of water over the solution was also measured at each temperature. Rayon, wool nylon, and acrylic fabrics were used as test fibers. The sorption of solubilized water by the fibers from perchloroethylene is exothermic below 75% relative humidity. The sorption isotherms are sigmoidal in shape like those of the sorption of water vapor by the fibers in humid air. The values of parameter C in the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation were calculated as a function of the moisture regain of the fibers. The values of parameter C decreased as the moisture regain of the fibers increased. The heat of adsorption of water E1 and EAV, for the first layer and for the average of total amounts of water molecule adsorbed by the fibers, respectively, were calculated from the temperature dependence of parameter C, and it was found that the values of both E1 and EAV decreased as the moisture regain of the fibers increased. The values of EAV thus obtained were in good agreement with the heat of adsorption obtained from the change by temperature of vapor pressure of water adsorbed by the fiber, which was reported in the previous paper.
Long chain alkylthiobetaines, CnH2n+1S+ (CH3) CH2COO-, where n is 10, 11, 12, 14, or 16, were synthesized and their zwitterionic structures were confirmed by IR and NMR spectra in aqueous solutions. The critical micelle concentrations (cmc) were determined by surface tension and light scattering method and they were in good agreement with each other. The relations between the logarithm of cmc and the number (n) of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain were as follows; log cmc=3.27-0.50n by surface tension method at 30°C log cmc=3.53-0.52n by light scattering method at 21°C On the other hand, a linear relationship was found between the logarithm of the aggregation number (m) of micelles and the alkyl chain length. It was expressed as follows; log m=0.14n+0.29 (n=1012) These results were discussed by comparison with other amphoteric surfactants such as N-alkylbetaine and N-alkylsulfobetaine.
In the previous paper, the antioxidant effect of capsaicin, the pungent principle of red pepper, has been demonstrated. Capsaicin is a N-vanillylamide whose pungency has been known to depend upon the carbon chain length of the fatty acid moiety. In this paper, to obtain the pungent free N-vanillylamides, which are expected to be useful as antioxidants for foods, syntheses of N-vanillylamides of saturated C12 to C22 fatty acids were carried out, and their pungency and antioxidant activity were determined. As a result, their pungency reduced with the elongation of carbon chain of the fatty acid. That is, compared with C9 amide, the pungency of C14 amide was 1/100 and that of C18 amide decreased to 1/1000. On the other hand, the antioxygenic effect of each synthetic N-vanillylamide on methyl ester of safflower oil was almost equal to that of the natural pungent mixture extracted from red pepper. By addition of 0.02mol/kg of synthetic amides in the substrate, the antioxidant activity was equivalent to that of BHA in 0.02% level. In this level, pungency was not found in the sensory even for C12 amide.
The treatment of 3, 4-epoxy-p-menthene (1) (0.05mol) with ZnCl2 (0.01mol) for 1h at 196°C yielded menthone (6) as a major product (80.2%), accompanying 3-p-menthene (2), 1-p-menthene (3), p-cymene (4), 3-methyl-1-isopropylcyclopentanecarbaldehyde (5), and pulegol (7).
The fatty acids of the Mesocarp oils of Lindera strychnifolia (Sieb. et Zucc.) F. Vill. Neolitsea aciculate (Blume) Kodz., and Neolitsea sericea (Blume) Kodz. were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Each component was identified comparing with authentic compounds. The fatty acids identified were palmitic, hexadecenoic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids. The major component was oleic acid. Consequently, a characteristic cis-4-alkenoic acid, which was found in the seed oils of the above mentioned plants, were not found in these mesocarp oils.
On the oxidation of longifolene (1) with lead tetraacetate, several products, longicamphenilone (2), longi-β-camphenilan aldehyde (3), longiisohomocamphenilone (4), longihomocamphenilone (5), longi-α-nojigiku alcohol (6), longicyclenyl alcohol (7) and longi-β-camphenillyl alcohol (8), were obtained. Their structures were assigned on the basis of spectral evidence. The compounds (6) and (7) are new sesquiterpene alcohols.