油化学
Online ISSN : 1884-2003
ISSN-L : 0513-398X
20 巻 , 5 号
選択された号の論文の8件中1~8を表示しています
  • 中川 俊夫
    1971 年 20 巻 5 号 p. 277-283
    発行日: 1971/05/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 臼井 浩, 桑山 英夫, 長倉 稔
    1971 年 20 巻 5 号 p. 284-289
    発行日: 1971/05/20
    公開日: 2010/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    In order to determine the position of individual fatty acid within triglyceride, hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase was carried out at 40°C, buffered at pH 8 by 1M-phosphate solution and using PVA as an emulsifier. Hydrolyzed products of 2-myristo-1, 3-dilaurin showed that the 1, 3-positions of glyceride were preferentially hydrolyzed under above conditions. When the mixture of five simple triglycerides which consisted of C10, C12, C14, C16, or C18 saturated fatty acid was hydrolyzed, it was found that shorter chain fatty acid was split more rapidly than longer one. The order of ease spliting came as follows;
    C10≥C12>C14>>C16>C18
    With the randomized triglyceride, the same order was observed.
    It was found that the conditions described above were satisfactory for the hydrolysis with pancreatic lipase to determine the glyceride structure of natural fats when hydrolysis was carried out sufficiently.
  • 丸山 武紀, 新谷 〓, 今村 正男, 松本 太郎
    1971 年 20 巻 5 号 p. 290-295
    発行日: 1971/05/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    In order to examine the method for concurrent determination of water and solid fat index in margarine by differential scanning calorimetry, margarine samples were prepared by the addition of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40% of water to the base fatty oil of soft type and hard type.
    1) Calibration curve was obtained from the heat of fusion against the weight of indium and the weight of tracing paper at the endothermic and exothermic peaks.
    2) Examinations on the condition of measurement showed optimal conditions to be 310°C/min for the rate of heating, 1030mg of the sample, and 28mcal/sec as the detection sensitivity according to the amount of water present.
    3) The amount of water obtained from cooling and heating differential scanning calorimetry and that obtained by the oven method showed a linear correlation and the maximum error was ±2%.
    4) For the measurement of solid fat index, the total area of fat, except the melting peak area of water, was copied on a tracing paper, and the index was calculated from the area at optional temperature. Comparison of this value with that obtained from dilatometry showed a linear correlation existing in the region below 30 by the dilatometry and below 40 by the differential scanning calorimetry.
  • 河田 司, 山崎 ます子
    1971 年 20 巻 5 号 p. 295-298
    発行日: 1971/05/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    Lauric hard butter made from coconut oil and palm kernel oil, has been used in confectionery coatings because of its excellent palatability and high oxidative stability. However, sometimes it develops distinct odor when it is used in the coatings of moist cake such as manjyu (one of Japanese cake). The odor is sweet but unpleasant. In most cases, it develops with molds and seems to be ketonic rancidity.
    In this study, hydrogenated coconut oil was forced to develop the distinct odor under special condition and odoriferous compounds were isolated and identified as 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, 2-nonanone and 2-undecanone by IR and gaschromatography.
  • 三浦 利之, 土田 雅子, 武藤 健, 宮木 高明
    1971 年 20 巻 5 号 p. 298-303
    発行日: 1971/05/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    To investigate acute and sub-acute toxicity of edible oil irradiated by a germicidal lamp was performed with mice as test animals.
    The acute toxicity was determined by a single peroral administration of the irradiated oil into mice. The mice in the test group showed a reduction of the body weight and some animals died in case of intaking the highly irradiated oil. No histopathological changes were observed except dilatation of the gut.
    For observation of short and long-term toxicity the mice were fed with diets containing 10% of the irradiation oil ad libitum for 4 weeks and for 17 weeks. General symptoms, body weight, organ weight, blood count, liver function tests, liver and plasma lipid composition and pathological examinations were carried out to investigate the biomedical effects of the oil on the test animals.
    An atrophy and anemia in the spleen were observed in the early stage of the feeding period, within 12 weeks. Especially, blood count varied markedly, that is, a number of red blood cells decreased and that of white blood cells increased.
    In the late stage of the feeding period, fatty acid composition in the liver of the animals fed with the irradiated oil was obviously changed as compared with that of the control oil group. The enlargement of the liver was also observed in the group of irradiated oil.
    At the 17th week of feeding by the irradiated oil, the liver of the animals tested showed a slight damage by functional tests and morphological observation.
  • 柏 一郎, 平林 隆, 角田 光雄, 大陽 洋一
    1971 年 20 巻 5 号 p. 304-309
    発行日: 1971/05/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    Washing process seems to consist of two factors, pyhsico-chemical action of detergent and mechanical action of washing machine. In this paper, the effect of these factors on detergency was investigated by means of Terg-O-Tometer. Ratios of DC and DM to detergency, p and q, were shown as follows;
    D=DC+DM
    DM=DW
    p= (DC/D) ×100= {(D-DM) /D} ×100= {(D-DW) /D} ×100
    q= (DM/D) ×100= (DW/D) ×100
    Where, D, DC, DM and DW are detergency, detergencies of physico-chemical action, mechanical action and of washing with water, respectively.
    It was found that logarithms of mechanical action and washing time were proportional to detergency in the case of washing with detergent soln. In the ordinary washing conditions p values showed 40-50% and q was 60-50%. Therefore, DM contributes to detergency in washing process, nearly as much as DC. Both washing temperature and concentration of detergent gave little influence on p values within litmit of the experimental conditions.
  • 岡本 能樹, 桜井 洸
    1971 年 20 巻 5 号 p. 310-313
    発行日: 1971/05/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    Chlorophosphonation of some acid chlorides was carried out under the condition of the mole ratio of acid chloride to PCl3 1 : 5, the flow rate of oxygen 200ml/min, the temperature -2010°C, and the reaction time for 3hrs. The compositions of the products, esterified with ethanol, were identified by GLC (Ucon LB 550 X, 203226°C, N2 gas carrier) in comparision with authentic samples synthesized by other methods. The product distribution (mol%) in chlorophosphonation of acid chlorides is as follows.
  • 湯木 悦二
    1971 年 20 巻 5 号 p. 313-316
    発行日: 1971/05/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    The effect of the magnesium oxide adsorption on the removal of free fatty acid in the oil which was used for frying, was tested. This method was proposed by Hoovers in U.S. 3, 231, 390.
    The prevention of the increase of free fatty acid in the oil during deep fat frying is very important. This increase is mainly caused by the hydrolysis of fat and the rate of hydrolysis is proportional to the acid concentration. The effective method to prevent hydrolysis is, therefore, to inactivate the action of free fatty acid as is produced.
    Using the continuous water-spraying and heating system and the automatic test fryer, the effect of the magnesium oxide adsorption was tested (Table-4, Fig. -2). As a result, the following facts were recognized. The free fatty acid content in the oil has been maintained in low amount at the initial stage. However, the magnesium soap which was produced by the reaction of magnesium oxide with the free fatty acid, dissolved into the oil and accumulated gradually with increase of the frying time, and this soap promoted hydrolysis significantly. Therefore, the higher sensitivity of the oil to hydrolysis resulted in the higher content of free fatty acid as compared with that of the control test, at the latter stage.
    As mentioned above, this method is not practical.
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